Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life 15th Edition

Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life 15th Edition PDF

By Cecie Starr, Ralph Taggart, Christine Evers and Lisa Starr

Table of Contents

Contents in Brief

Detailed Contents

Preface

Student and Instructor Resources

Acknowledgments

Class Testers and Reviewers

Chapter 1: Invitation to Biology

1.1 Application: Secret Life of Earth

1.2 Life Is More Than the Sum of Its Parts

1.3 How Living Things Are Alike

1.4 How Living Things Differ

1.5 Organizing Information about Species

1.6 The Science of Nature

1.7 Analyzing Experimental Results

1.8 The Nature of Science

Chapter 2: Life’s Chemical Basis

2.1 Mercury Rising

2.2 Building Blocks of Matter

2.3 Why Electrons Matter

2.4 Chemical Bonds

2.5 Hydrogen Bonding and Water

2.6 Acids and Bases

Chapter 3: Molecules of Life

3.1 Fear of Frying

3.2 The Chemistry of Biology

3.3 Carbohydrates

3.4 Lipids

3.5 Proteins

3.6 Nucleic Acids

Chapter 4: Cell Structure

4.1 Food for Thought

4.2 What Is a Cell?

4.3 Introducing the Prokaryotes

4.4 Introducing the Eukaryotic Cell

4.5 The Endomembrane System

4.6 Mitochondria

4.7 Chloroplasts and Other Plastids

4.8 The Cytoskeleton

4.9 Cell Surface Specializations

4.10 The Nature of Life

Chapter 5: Ground Rules of Metabolism

5.1 A Toast to Alcohol Dehydrogenase

5.2 Energy in the World of Life

5.3 Energy in the Molecules of Life

5.4 How Enzymes Work

5.5 Metabolic Pathways

5.6 Cofactors

5.7 A Closer Look at Cell Membranes

5.8 Diffusion across Membranes

5.9 Membrane Transport Mechanisms

5.10 Membrane Trafficking

Chapter 6: Where It Starts-Photosynthesis

6.1 Biofuels

6.2 Overview of Photosynthesis

6.3 Sunlight as an Energy Source

6.4 The Light-Dependent Reactions

6.5 The Light-Independent Reactions

Chapter 7: Releasing Chemical Energy

7.1 Risky Business

7.2 Introduction to Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways

7.3 Aerobic Respiration Continues

7.4 Aerobic Respiration Ends

7.5 Fermentation

7.6 Alternative Energy Sources in Food

Chapter 8: DNA Structure and Function

8.1 A Hero Dog’s Golden Clones

8.2 Discovery of DNA’s Function

8.3 Discovery of DNA’s Structure

8.4 Eukaryotic Chromosomes

8.5 DNA Replication

8.6 Mutations: Cause and Effect

8.7 Cloning Adult Animals

Chapter 9: From DNA to Protein

9.1 Ricin, RIP

9.2 DNA, RNA, and Gene Expression

9.3 Transcription: DNA to RNA

9.4 RNA and the Genetic Code

9.5 Translation: RNA to Protein

9.6 Consequences of Mutations

Chapter 10: Control of Gene Expression

10.1 Between You and Eternity

10.2 Regulating Gene Expression

10.3 Regulating Gene Expression in Development

10.4 Regulating Gene Expression to Adjust Metabolism

10.5 Epigenetics

Chapter 11: How Cells Reproduce

11.1 Henrietta’s Immortal Cells

11.2 Multiplication by Division

11.3 A Closer Look at Mitosis

11.4 Cytoplasmic Division

11.5 Marking Time with Telomeres

11.6 When Mitosis Is Dangerous

Chapter 12: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction

12.1 Why Sex?

12.2 Meiosis in Sexual Reproduction

12.3 Visual Tour of Meiosis

12.4 Meiosis Fosters Genetic Diversity

12.5 An Ancestral Connection

Chapter 13: Observing Patterns in Inherited Traits

13.1 Menacing Mucus

13.2 Mendel, Pea Plants, and Inheritance Patterns

13.3 Mendel’s Law of Segregation

13.4 Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment

13.5 Non-Mendelian Inheritance

13.6 Nature and Nurture

13.7 Complex Variation in Traits

Chapter 14: Chromosomes and Human Inheritance

14.1 Shades of Skin

14.2 Human Chromosomes

14.3 Autosomal Inheritance

14.4 X-Linked Inheritance

14.5 Changes in Chromosome Structure

14.6 Changes in Chromosome Number

14.7 Genetic Screening

Chapter 15: Studying and Manipulating Genomes

15.1 Personal Genetic Testing

15.2 DNA Cloning

15.3 Isolating Genes

15.4 DNA Sequencing

15.5 Genomics

15.6 Genetic Engineering

15.7 Designer Plants

15.8 Biotech Barnyards

15.9 Editing Genomes

Chapter 16: Evidence of Evolution

16.1 Reflections of a Distant Past

16.2 Old Beliefs and New Discoveries

16.3 Evolution by Natural Selection

16.4 Fossils: Evidence of Ancient Life

16.5 Changes in the History of Earth

Chapter 17: Processes of Evolution

17.1 Superbug Farms

17.2 Alleles in Populations

17.3 Genetic Equilibrium

17.4 Patterns of Natural Selection

17.5 Natural Selection and Diversity

17.6 Nonselective Evolution

17.7 Reproductive Isolation

17.8 Models of Speciation

17.9 Macroevolution

Chapter 18: Organizing Information about Species

18.1 Bye Bye Birdie

18.2 Phylogeny

18.3 Comparing Form and Function

18.4 Comparing Molecules

18.5 Comparing Development

18.6 Phylogeny Research

Chapter 19: Life’s Origin and Early Evolution

19.1 Looking for Life

19.2 The Early Earth

19.3 Organic Monomers Form

19.4 From Polymers to Protocells

19.5 The Age of Prokaryotes

19.6 A Rise in Oxygen

19.7 Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotes

Chapter 20: Viruses, Bacteria, and Archaea

20.1 The Human Microbiota

20.2 Virus Structure and Function

20.3 Viral Replication

20.4 Viruses and Human Health

20.5 Prokaryotic Structure and Function

20.6 Metabolic Diversity in Prokaryotes

20.7 Major Bacterial Lineages

20.8 Bacteria as Pathogens

20.9 Archaea

Chapter 21: Protists-The Simplest Eukaryotes

21.1 Malaria: A Protistan Disease

21.2 A Diverse Collection of Lineages

21.4 Stramenopiles

21.5 Alveolates

21.7 Archaeplastids

21.8 Amoebozoans and Opisthokonts

Chapter 22: The Land Plants

22.1 Saving Seeds

22.2 Plant Ancestry and Diversity

22.3 Evolutionary Trends among Plants

22.5 Seedless Vascular Plants

22.6 History of the Vascular Plants

22.7 Gymnosperms

22.8 Angiosperm Traits

22.9 Angiosperm Diversity

Chapter 23: Fungi

23.1 High-Flying Fungi

23.2 Fungal Traits and Diversity

23.3 Flagellated Fungi

23.4 Zygote Fungi and Relatives

23.5 Sac Fungi

23.6 Club Fungi

23.7 Biological Roles of Fungi

Chapter 24: Animal Evolution-The Invertebrates

24.1 Medicines from the Sea

24.2 Animal Traits and Body Plans

24.3 Animal Origins and Diversification

24.4 Sponges

24.5 Cnidarians

24.6 Flatworms

24.7 Annelids

24.8 Mollusks

24.9 Roundworms

24.10 Arthropods

24.11 The Spiny-Skinned Echinoderms

Chapter 25: Animal Evolution-The Vertebrates

25.1 Very Early Birds

25.2 Chordate Traits and Evolutionary Trends

25.3 Fishes

25.4 Amphibians

25.5 Amniote Evolution

25.6 Reptiles

25.7 Birds

25.8 Mammals

Chapter 26: Human Evolution

26.1 A Bit of a Neanderthal

26.2 Primates: Our Order

26.3 Hominoids

26.4 Early Hominins

26.5 Early Humans

26.6 Recent Human Lineages

Chapter 27: Plant Tissues

27.1 Sequestering Carbon in Forests

27.2 The Plant Body

27.3 Plant Tissues

27.4 Stems

27.5 Leaves

27.6 Roots

27.7 Patterns of Growth

Chapter 28: Plant Nutrition and Transport

28.1 Leafy Cleanup

28.2 Plant Nutrients

28.3 Root Adaptations for Nutrient Uptake

28.4 Movement of Water in Plants

28.5 Movement of Organic Compounds in Plants

Chapter 29: Life Cycles of Flowering Plants

29.1 Plight of the Honeybee

29.2 Floral Structure and Function

29.3 A New Generation Begins

29.4 Flower Sex

29.5 Seed Formation

29.6 Fruits

29.7 Early Development

29.8 Asexual Reproduction of Flowering Plants

Chapter 30: Communication Strategies in Plants

30.1 Prescription: Chocolate

30.2 Chemical Signaling in Plants

30.3 Auxin and Cytokinin

30.4 Gibberellin

30.5 Abscisic Acid and Ethylene

30.6 Movement

30.7 Responses to Recurring Environmental Change

30.8 Responses to Stress

Chapter 31: Animal Tissue and Organ Systems

31.1 Making Replacement Cells

31.2 Animal Body Plans

31.3 Epithelial Tissue

31.4 Connective Tissues

31.5 Muscle Tissue

31.6 Nervous Tissue

31.7 Organ Systems

31.8 Human Skin

31.9 Maintaining Homeostasis through Negative Feedback

Chapter 32: Neural Control

32.1 Impacts of Concussions

32.2 Animal Nervous Systems

32.3 Cells of the Nervous System

32.4 Electrical Signaling in Neurons

32.5 Chemical Signaling by Neurons

32.6 Neurotransmitter Function

32.7 The Peripheral Nervous System

32.8 Cells and Tissues of the Central Nervous System

32.9 The Spinal Cord

32.10 The Vertebrate Brain

32.11 The Human Cerebral Cortex

32.12 Emotion and Memory

32.13 Studying Brain Function

Chapter 33: Sensory Perception

33.1 Neuroprostheses

33.2 Overview of Sensory Pathways

33.3 General Senses

33.4 Chemical Senses

33.5 Hearing

33.6 Balance and Equilibrium

33.7 Vision

33.8 Human Vision

Chapter 34: Endocrine Control

34.1 Endocrine Disruptors

34.2 The Vertebrate Endocrine System

34.3 The Nature of Hormone Action

34.4 The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland

34.5 The Pineal Gland

34.6 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

34.7 Pancreatic Hormones

34.8 The Adrenal Glands

34.9 The Gonads

34.10 Invertebrate Hormones

Chapter 35: Structural Support and Movement

35.1 Bulking Up

35.2 Animal Movement

35.3 Types of Skeletons

35.4 Bone Structure and Function

35.5 Joint Structure and Function

35.6 Skeletal Muscle Function

35.7 How Muscle Contracts

35.8 Nervous Control of Muscle Contraction

35.9 Muscle Metabolism

Chapter 36: Circulation

36.1 A Shocking Save

36.2 Circulatory Systems

36.3 Human Cardiovascular System

36.4 The Human Heart

36.5 Vertebrate Blood

36.6 Arteries and Arterioles

36.7 Blood Pressure

36.8 Exchanges at Capillaries

36.9 Back to the Heart

36.10 Blood and Cardiovascular Disorders

36.11 Interactions with the Lymphatic System

Chapter 37: Immunity

37.1 Community Immunity

37.2 Integrated Responses to Threats

37.3 Surface Barriers

37.4 Mechanisms of Innate Immunity

37.5 Antigen Receptors

37.6 Overview of Adaptive Immunity

37.7 Adaptive Immunity I: An Antibody-Mediated Response

37.8 Adaptive Immunity II: The Cell-Mediated Response

37.9 When Immunity Goes Wrong

Chapter 38: Respiration

38.1 Carbon Monoxide-A Stealthy Poison

38.2 The Nature of Respiration

38.3 Invertebrate Respiration

38.4 Vertebrate Respiration

38.5 Human Respiratory System

38.6 How We Breathe

38.7 Gas Exchange and Transport

38.8 Respiratory Adaptations

38.9 Respiratory Diseases and Disorders

Chapter 39: Digestion and Nutrition

39.1 Breaking It Down

39.2 Animal Digestive Systems

39.3 Human Digestive Tract

39.4 Chewing and Swallowing

39.5 The Stomach

39.6 The Small Intestine

39.7 The Large Intestine

39.8 Nutritional Requirements

39.9 Maintaining a Healthy Weight

Chapter 40: Maintaining the Internal Environment

40.1 Urine Tests

40.2 Fluid Volume and Composition

40.3 Excretory Organs

40.4 The Human Urinary System

40.5 How Urine Forms

40.6 Regulating Solute Levels

40.7 Impaired Kidney Function

40.8 Excretory Adaptations

40.9 Heat Gains and Losses

40.10 Responses to Cold and Heat

Chapter 41: Animal Reproduction

41.1 Assisted Reproduction

41.2 Modes of Animal Reproduction

41.3 Organs of Sexual Reproduction

41.4 Sex Organs of Human Females

41.5 Female Reproductive Cycles

41.6 Sex Organs of Human Males

41.7 Bringing Gametes Together

41.8 Contraception and Infertility

41.9 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Chapter 42: Animal Development

42.1 Prenatal Problems

42.2 Stages of Animal Development

42.3 From Zygote to Gastrula

42.4 Tissue and Organ Formation

42.5 Evolutionary Developmental Biology

42.6 Overview of Human Development

42.7 Early Human Development

42.8 Emergence of Distinctly Human Features

42.9 Structure and Function of the Placenta

42.10 Labor, Birth, and Lactation

Chapter 43: Animal Behavior

43.1 Can You Hear Me Now?

43.2 Factors Affecting Behavior

43.3 Instinct and Learning

43.4 Movements and Navigation

43.5 Communication Signals

43.6 Mating and Parental Behavior

43.7 Group Living

43.8 Altruism and Eusociality

Chapter 44: Population Ecology

44.1 Managing Canada Geese

44.2 Population Demographics

44.3 Modeling Population Growth

44.4 Limits on Population Growth

44.5 Life History Patterns

44.6 Predation Effects on Life History

44.7 Human Population Growth

Chapter 45: Community Ecology

45.1 Fighting Foreign Fire Ants

45.2 What Factors Shape Community Structure?

45.3 Mutualism

45.4 Competitive Interactions

45.5 Predator-Prey Interactions

45.6 Evolutionary Arms Races

45.7 Parasites and Parasitoids

45.8 How Communities Change

45.9 Biogeographic Patterns in Community Structure

Chapter 46: Ecosystems

46.1 Too Much of a Good Thing

46.2 The Nature of Ecosystems

46.3 The Nature of Food Webs

46.4 Measuring Ecosystem Properties

46.5 Biogeochemical Cycles

46.6 The Water Cycle

46.7 The Carbon Cycle

46.8 Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

46.9 Nitrogen Cycle

46.10 The Phosphorus Cycle

Chapter 47: The Biosphere

47.1 Going with the Flow

47.2 Global Air Circulation Patterns

47.3 Oceans, Landforms, and Climate

47.4 The El Nino Southern Oscillation

47.5 Biomes

47.6 Deserts

47.7 Grasslands and Dry Shrublands

47.8 Broadleaf Forests

47.9 Coniferous Forests

47.10 Tundra

47.11 Freshwater Ecosystems

47.12 Coastal Ecosystems

47.13 Coral Reefs

47.14 The Open Ocean

Chapter 48: Human Impacts on the Biosphere

48.1 Life in the Anthropocene

48.2 The Extinction Crisis

48.3 Harmful Land Use Practices

48.4 Effects of Pollutants

48.5 Ozone Depletion and Pollution

48.6 Effects of Global Climate Change

48.7 Conservation Biology

48.8 Reducing Negative Impacts

Appendix I: Periodic Table of the Elements

Appendix II: The Amino Acids

Appendix III: A Closer Look at Some Major Metabolic Pathways

Appendix IV: A Plain English Map of the Human Chromosomes

Appendix V: Restless Earth-Life’s Changing Geologic Stage

Appendix VI: Units of Measure

Appendix VII: Answers to Self-Quizzes and Genetics Problems

Glossary of Biological Terms

Index

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