Magill’s Encyclopedia of Science Animal Life

684

Magill’s Encyclopedia of Science Animal Life

Magill’s Encyclopedia Of Science Animal Life

By Carl W. Hoagstrom

Magill’s Encyclopedia of Science Animal Life PDF. Ideal for high school, undergraduate, and general readers, this 4-volume set offers accessible, easy-to-understand scientific information on a subject that is of significant popular and academic interest. Entries ranging from 1,000-3,000 words, focus on nonhumans from the Animal Kingdom, from insects to reptiles to mammals. Early humans are addressed in an evolutionary context, and modern humans are included only for interspecies comparison or for their efforts to coexist with other species. Species overviews, at 1,000-2,000 words, discuss notable anatomy and physiology, habitat, behavior and reproduction and include a sidebar listing classification, geographical location, life span, and special anatomy. All entries begin with ready-reference information about the type of animal science and fields of study and feature a list of principal terms, with brief definitions. Numerous subheads guide the reader through the main text of the entry. Every essay ends with an annotated bibliography. Issue oriented discussions (animal rights, habitat destruction, poaching) and biographical entries (John James Audubon, Charles Darwin, Jane Goodall) appear as 500-word sidebars within main entries. In addition, longer entries provide one or more brief sidebars highlighting interesting subjects relating to the text.
Table of Contents

A
Aardvarks, 1
Adaptations and their mechanisms, 3
Adaptive radiation, 8
Aging, 13
Allosaurus, 16
Altruism, 19
American pronghorns, 24
Amphibians, 27
Anatomy, 34
Animal kingdom, 38
Antelope, 44
Antennae, 48
Ants, 51
Apatosaurus, 54
Apes to hominids, 57
Arachnids, 63
Archaeopteryx, 68
Armadillos, anteaters, and sloths, 71
Arthropods, 75
Asexual reproduction, 79

B
Baboons, 82
Bats, 85
Beaks and bills, 88
Bears, 92
Beavers, 96
Bees, 99
Beetles, 103
Biodiversity, 107
Biogeography, 114
Biology, 117
Bioluminescence, 119
Birds, 122
Birth, 130
Bone and cartilage, 134
Brachiosaurus, 138
Brain, 141
Breeding programs, 147
Butterflies and moths, 152

C
Camels, 156
Camouflage, 159
Cannibalism, 163
Carnivores, 165
Cats, 170
Cattle, buffalo, and bison, 175
Cell types, 179
Centipedes and millipedes, 185
Chameleons, 188
Chaparral, 191
Cheetahs, 194
Chickens, turkeys, pheasant, and quail, 197
Chimpanzees, 201
Chordates, lower, 205
Circulatory systems of invertebrates, 210
Circulatory systems of vertebrates, 216
Clams and oysters, 220
Claws, nails, and hooves, 223
Cleavage, gastrulation, and neurulation, 227
Clines, hybrid zones, and introgression, 232
Cloning of extinct or endangered species, 236
Cockroaches, 240
Coevolution, 243
Cold-blooded animals, 249
Communication, 252
Communities, 259
Competition, 265
Convergent and divergent evolution, 271
Copulation, 277
Coral, 280
Courtship, 283
Crabs and lobsters, 288
Cranes, 292
Crocodiles, 295
Crustaceans, 300

D
Death and dying, 304
Deep-sea animals, 308
Deer, 311
Defense mechanisms, 314
Demographics, 320
Deserts, 326
Determination and differentiation, 331
Development: Evolutionary perspective, 337
Digestion, 342
Digestive tract, 348
Dinosaurs, 354
Diseases, 360
Displays, 366
Dogs, wolves, and coyotes, 370
Dolphins, porpoises, and other toothed whales, 375
Domestication, 380
Donkeys and mules, 385
Ducks, 388
E
Eagles, 394
Ears, 399
Echinoderms, 405
Ecological niches, 409
Ecology, 415
Ecosystems, 422
Eels, 428
Elephant seals, 431
Elephants, 434
Elk, 437
Embryology, 440
Emotions, 444
Endangered species, 448
Endocrine systems of invertebrates, 456
Endocrine systems of vertebrates, 461
Endoskeletons, 466
Estivation, 473
Estrus, 476
Ethology, 480
Evolution: Animal life, 486
Evolution: Historical perspective, 491
Exoskeletons, 499
Extinction, 505
Extinctions and evolutionary explosions, 512
Eyes, 520

F
Fauna: Africa, 524
Fauna: Antarctica, 530
Fauna: Arctic, 532
Fauna: Asia, 534
Fauna: Australia, 539
Fauna: Caribbean, 546
Fauna: Central America, 549
Fauna: Europe, 553
Fauna: Galápagos Islands, 559
Fauna: Madagascar, 561
Fauna: North America, 564
Fauna: Pacific Islands, 569
Fauna: South America, 575
Feathers, 582
Fertilization, 585
Fins and flippers, 589
Fish, 594
Flamingos, 600
Flatworms, 603
Flies, 606
Flight, 609
Food chains and food webs, 614
Forests, coniferous, 620
Forests, deciduous, 624
Fossils, 628
Foxes, 634
Frogs and toads, 637

G
Gametogenesis, 646
Gas exchange, 651
Geese, 657
Gene flow, 660
Genetics, 664
Giraffes, 670
Goats, 673
Gophers, 676
Gorillas, 679
Grasshoppers, 683
Grasslands and prairies, 686
Grizzly bears, 690
Grooming, 693
Groups, 698
Growth, 704

H
Habitats and biomes, 709
Habituation and sensitization, 716
Hadrosaurs, 722
The Hardy-Weinberg law of genetic equilibrium, 725
Hawks, 731
Hearing, 737
Heart, 741
Herbivores, 745
Herds, 750
Hermaphrodites, 754
Heterochrony, 757
Hibernation, 761
Hierarchies, 765
Hippopotamuses, 769
Home building, 772
Homeosis, 776
Hominids, 782
Homo sapiens and human diversification, 790
Hormones and behavior, 798
Hormones in mammals, 804
Horns and antlers, 811
Horses and zebras, 815
Horseshoe crabs, 820
Human evolution analysis, 823
Hummingbirds, 829
Hydrostatic skeletons, 832
Hyenas, 836
Hyraxes, 839

I
Ichthyosaurs, 842
Immune system, 845
Imprinting, 849
Infanticide, 856
Ingestion, 859
Insect societies, 865
Insects, 873
Instincts, 880
Intelligence, 885
Invertebrates, 889
Isolating mechanisms in evolution, 894

J
Jaguars, 899
Jellyfish, 902

K
Kangaroos, 905
Kidneys and other excretory structures, 908
Koalas, 912

L
Lactation, 915
Lakes and rivers, 920
Lampreys and hagfish, 925
Language, 930
Learning, 936
Lemurs, 943
Leopards, 946
Life spans, 949
Lions, 955
Lizards, 958
Locomotion, 963
Lungfish, 969
Lungs, gills, and tracheas, 972

M
Mammalian social systems, 977
Mammals, 983
Mammoths, 988
Manatees, 991
Marine animals, 994
Marine biology, 1000
Mark, release, and recapture methods, 1005
Marsupials, 1011
Mating, 1016
Meerkats, 1021
Metabolic rates, 1024
Metamorphosis, 1028
Mice and rats, 1033
Migration, 1036
Mimicry, 1042
Moles, 1045
Mollusks, 1048
Molting and shedding, 1052
Monkeys, 1056
Monotremes, 1059
Moose, 1062
Morphogenesis, 1065
Mosquitoes, 1070
Mountain lions, 1073
Mountains, 1076
Multicellularity, 1079
Muscles in invertebrates, 1087
Muscles in vertebrates, 1094
Mutations, 1099
N
Natural selection, 1106
Neanderthals, 1114
Nervous systems of vertebrates, 1119
Nesting, 1125
Neutral mutations and evolutionary clocks, 1129
Nocturnal animals, 1135
Nonrandom mating, genetic drift, and mutation, 1139
Noses, 1144
Nutrient requirements, 1147
O
Octopuses and squid, 1151
Offspring care, 1155
Omnivores, 1160
Opossums, 1163
Orangutans, 1166
Osmoregulation, 1170
Ostriches and related birds, 1176
Otters, 1179
Owls, 1182
P
Packs, 1187
Pair-bonding, 1191
Paleoecology, 1194
Paleontology, 1199
Pandas, 1209
Parrots, 1212
Parthenogenesis, 1215
Pelicans, 1219
Penguins, 1222
pH maintenance, 1226
Pheromones, 1232
Phylogeny, 1238
Physiology, 1243
Pigs and hogs, 1246
Placental mammals, 1249
Plant and animal interactions, 1253
Platypuses, 1259
Poisonous animals, 1262
Polar bears, 1266
Pollution effects, 1269
Population analysis, 1275
Population fluctuations, 1279
Population genetics, 1285
Population growth, 1291
Porcupines, 1298
Praying mantis, 1301
Predation, 1304
Pregnancy and prenatal development, 1310
Prehistoric animals, 1316
Primates, 1323
Protozoa, 1330
Pterosaurs, 1336
Punctuated equilibrium and continuous evolution, 1339
Q
R
Rabbits, hares, and pikas, 1344
Raccoons and related mammals, 1347
Rain forests, 1350
Reefs, 1354
Reflexes, 1357
Regeneration, 1364
Reindeer, 1370
Reproduction, 1373
Reproductive strategies, 1379
Reproductive system of female mammals, 1385
Reproductive system of male mammals, 1390
Reptiles, 1395
Respiration and low oxygen, 1401
Respiration in birds, 1407
Respiratory system, 1413
Rhinoceroses, 1419
Rhythms and behavior, 1422
Rodents, 1428
Roundworms, 1433
Ruminants, 1436
S
Salamanders and newts, 1439
Salmon and trout, 1443
Sauropods, 1446
Savannas, 1450
Scales, 1453
Scavengers, 1456
Scorpions, 1460
Seahorses, 1463
Seals and walruses, 1466
Sense organs, 1471
Sex differences: Evolutionary origin, 1477
Sexual development, 1483
Sharks and rays, 1487
Sheep, 1493
Shells, 1496
Shrews, 1500
Skin, 1502
Skunks, 1506
Sleep, 1509
Smell, 1514
Snails, 1517
Snakes, 1520
Sparrows and finches, 1525
Spiders, 1530
Sponges, 1535
Squirrels, 1538
Starfish, 1541
Stegosaurs, 1544
Storks, 1547
Swamps and marshes, 1550
Swans, 1554
Symbiosis, 1557
Systematics, 1564
T
Tails, 1573
Tasmanian devils, 1578
Teeth, fangs, and tusks, 1581
Tentacles, 1586
Termites, 1589
Territoriality and aggression, 1592
Thermoregulation, 1599
Tidepools and beaches, 1605
Tigers, 1609
Tool use, 1612
Triceratops, 1616
Tundra, 1619
Turtles and tortoises, 1622
Tyrannosaurus, 1626
U
Ungulates, 1629
Urban and suburban wildlife, 1633
V
Velociraptors, 1639
Vertebrates, 1642
Veterinary medicine, 1645
Vision, 1650
Vocalizations, 1654
Vultures, 1660
W
Warm-blooded animals, 1663
Wasps and hornets, 1666
Water balance in vertebrates, 1669
Weasels and related mammals, 1674
Whale sharks, 1679
Whales, baleen, 1682
White sharks, 1687
Wildlife management, 1690
Wings, 1695
Woodpeckers, 1702
Worms, segmented, 1706
X
Y
Z
Zoology, 1709
Zooplankton, 1713
Zoos, 1716
Glossary, 1723
Animal Terminology, 1764
Time Line, 1769
Classification Table, 1770
Geographical List of Animals, 1784
Biographical List of Scientists, 1788
General Bibliography, 1798
Journals, 1808
Organizations, 1816
Alphabetical List, LVII
Category List, LXIII
Index, LXXIII

This Book is For Premium Members Only

Become a Premium Now