The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates: Variations, Abnormalities and Joint Pathologies

By Djillali Hadjouis

The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates: Variations, Abnormalities and Joint Pathologies PDF forms part of the set, Comparative Anatomy and Posture of Animal and Human, and focuses on the skulls of Quaternary mammals and of Man since the acquisition of upright posture. Although the vast majority of the quadruped fossil species have a balanced postural adaptation, with no asymmetries or maxillo-mandibular dysmorphoses, the Hominine species that has acquired this readjustment of the body as well as a bipedal adaptation to the ground, will experience a series of postural imbalances starting with malocclusion in the genus Homo.

In order to arrive at this conclusion, the cranio-facial architectural biodynamics of several species of fossil and current mammals have been analyzed over three decades. In addition, hundreds of skulls of anatomically modern Hominids have been examined, highlighting their occlusal offsets, variations, anomalies and pathologies.

Table of Contents

Introduction xi

Part 1. The Skull of Fossil and Present-day Quadruped Vertebrates: Craniofacial Structure and Postural Balance 1

Chapter 1. Proboscideans: The Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) 3

1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 3

1.2. Mammoth discoveries in Île-de-France 5

1.3. A young mammoth in Maisons-Alfort 5

1.4. A woolly mammoth skull in the reserves 6

1.5. A mammoth skull with removed tusks 7

1.6. A particular tooth eruption 8

Chapter 2. Equidae 11

2.1. The horse (Equus caballus) 11

2.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 11

2.1.2. A fossil horse in Africa: paleogeographic and biostratigraphic distributions 15

2.1.3. The postural balance of Equidae 17

2.1.4. Joint pathologies in service horses 18

2.1.5. Introduction to animal bone pathologies and zoonoses 20

2.1.6. The horse’s status over the centuries 20

2.2. The donkey (Equus asinus) 21

2.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 22

2.2.2. The status of the donkey over the centuries 23

Chapter 3. Bovidae 25

3.1. Aurochs (Bos primigenius) 25

3.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 25

3.1.2. Cattle (Bos taurus) 27

3.1.3. The status of cattle over the centuries 28

3.2. The bison (Bison priscus): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 28

3.3. The buffalo (Syncerus antiquus) 29

3.3.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the current Syncerus and Bubalus buffaloes 29

3.3.2. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of fossil species 30

3.3.3. Bos/Syncerus dental distinction criteria 35

3.3.4. Postural balance and paleoecology of Bovidae 38

3.3.5. Polymorphism and dimorphism in Bovidae 39

3.3.6. Osteoarticular abnormalities and bone pathologies in Bovidae 41

3.4. The common eland (Taurotragus oryx) 43

3.4.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 43

3.4.2. Posture and locomotor adaptation 46

3.5. The hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) 48

3.5.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 48

3.5.2. Postural balance 49

3.6. Gazelles (Gazella) 50

3.6.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 50

3.6.2. Postural balance 51

Chapter 4. Cervidae 53

4.1. The red deer (Cervus elaphus) 53

4.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 53

4.1.2. The status of deer developing over the centuries 58

4.2. The Algerian thick-cheeked deer (Megaceroides algericus) 59

4.2.1. Several species from Europe, the Mediterranean islands and one species from the Maghreb 60

4.2.2. Size of Megaceroides algericus 63

Chapter 5. Suidae 65

5.1. The wild boar (Sus scrofa) 65

5.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 65

5.1.2. The status of the boar over the centuries 67

5.1.3. Postural balance of the boar 67

5.2. The warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus or africanus) 70

5.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 71

5.2.2. A particular tooth eruption 74

5.2.3. Postural balance of the warthog 76

5.2.4. Pathologies in warthogs 77

5.2.5. A catastrophic mortality curve 78

Chapter 6. Carnivores 81

6.1. The lion (Panthera leo) 81

6.1.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 81

6.1.2. Occlusal posture and the lion’s balance on the ground 83

6.2. The panther or leopard (Panthera pardus) 84

6.2.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 85

6.2.2. Occlusal posture and postural balance of the panther on the ground 85

6.3. The spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 87

6.4. The striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena) 89

6.4.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of species 89

6.4.2. Occlusal posture and postural balance of hyenas on the ground 90

6.5. The cave bear (Ursus spelaeus) and the brown bear (Ursus arctos): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 93

6.6. The wolf (Canis lupus): chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 95

Chapter 7. Lagomorphs: The Hare (Lepus capensis99

7.1. Chronological, geographical and morphological indications of the species 99

7.2. The status of the hare over the centuries 101

Part 2. The Skull of Fossil Bipedal Vertebrates: Craniofacial Structure and Postural Balance 103

Chapter 8. Primates 105

8.1. Occlusal posture, quadrupedic and verticalization of the Hominoid body 106

8.2. Work in dentofacial orthopedics and embryogenesis 108

Chapter 9. Hominoids 111

9.1. Kenyapithecus 112

9.2. Nacholapithecus 113

9.3. Otavipithecus namibiensis 113

Chapter 10. From Hominoids to Hominids 115

10.1. Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba 115

10.2. Praeanthropus tugenensis (= Orrorin tugenensis) 116

10.3. Sahelanthropus tchadensis 116

10.4. Ardipithecus ramidus 117

10.5. Praeanthropus africanus (= Australopithecus anamensis) 118

Chapter 11. Australopithecus 119

11.1. Australopithecus afarensis 120

11.2. Australopithecus africanus 120

11.3. Australopithecus bahrelghazali 120

11.4. Australopithecus garhi 121

11.5. Paranthropus robustus 121

11.6. Australopithecus aethiopicus 121

11.7. Australopithecus boisei 122

Chapter 12. The Genus Homo 123

12.1. Homo habilis 126

12.2. Homo rudolfensis 126

12.3. Homo ergaster and Homo erectus 127

12.4. Homo georgicus 128

12.5. Homo neanderthalensis 129

12.5.1. Plesiomorphic and autapomorphic morphological features 129

12.5.2. Non-Sapiens craniofacial dynamics and posture 130

12.5.3. A permanent labidodental joint 130

12.5.4. The asymmetry of fossil pieces 133

12.6. Homo sapiens 135

Chapter 13. Migration and Paleogeographic Distribution of the Homininae 137

13.1. Australopithecus and Homo habilis: regional African migrations 137

13.2. Homo ergaster and Homo erectus: the first great African-Eurasian journey 139

13.3. Homo neanderthalensis: a Eurasian traveler 141

13.4. Homo sapiens: the second great conquest voyage on all continents 141

Part 3. The Skull of Homo sapiens in All its Diversity 145

Chapter 14. The Craniofacial Puzzle in Motion 147

14.1. Normality and its boundaries with the abnormal and the pathological 147

14.2. The importance of interpreting or reinterpreting (Le Double 1903, 1906) 148

14.3. Craniofacial structural mechanics and dynamics 149

14.3.1. Biodynamics of vault bones 150

14.3.2. Biodynamics of the temporal bone 151

14.3.3. Biodynamics of the occipital bone 151

14.3.4. Biodynamics of the sphenoidal bone 152

14.3.5. Biodynamics of the maxillary bone 152

14.3.6. Biodynamics of the mandibular bone 154

Chapter 15. The Basics of Structural Analysis 157

15.1. Analysis tools using imaging 157

15.2. Maxillo-mandibular dysmorphoses 159

x The Skull of Quadruped and Bipedal Vertebrates

15.2.1. Angle’s classification 160

15.3. History of structural mechanics: from geometry to imagery 161

15.3.1. The initiators 161

15.3.2. FDO orthopedists and orthodontists 163

15.3.3. Osteopaths 165

15.3.4. Recent work in human paleontology and paleoanthropology 166

Chapter 16. Identification of Malformation 169

16.1. Craniostenosis, a history of sutures 169

16.2. Craniofacial asymmetries 172

16.2.1. Examples of craniofacial asymmetries 174

16.2.2. The importance of the spine and its effects in basic cranial equilibrium or disequilibrium 180

16.3. Psalidodontia or labidodontia? 181

16.3.1. The behavior of the dental articulation of juvenile Pleistocene and Holocene populations in the Maghreb and the Sahara 184

16.3.2. Dental articulation and extraction of the incisors 187

16.4. Para-masticatory functions of Homo sapiens in Algeria 190

16.5. Occlusal equilibrium and adaptation of regional morphotypes 193

16.5.1. In the Paris Basin 193

16.5.2. In the Maghreb countries 198

16.5.3. Occlusal balance and the regional morphotype in the Maghreb and Sub-Saharan Africa 199

Chapter 17. Ignored Pathologies 205

17.1. Extremely rare craniofacial pathologies 205

17.1.1. Crouzon syndrome 205

17.1.2. Marfan syndrome 205

17.1.3. Cranial thickening and Albers-Schönberg’s disease 206

17.1.4. Torticollis 206

17.1.5. Parietal thinning 207

17.1.6. Scurvy 208

17.2. The oldest therapeutic practice: trepanning 209

Conclusion 211

References 213

Index 235

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