Muscular System of Vertebrates

Muscular System of Vertebrates PDF

By Seth M. Kisia, Daniel W. Onyango

Muscular System of Vertebrates PDF. An account of the different morphologies of vertebrate respiratory organs and structures. It explains the essence of different functional designs and strategies that have adaptively developed for the acquisition of molecular oxygen and elimination of carbon dioxide. The origins of the various respiratory systems are presented and debated from evolutionary, phylogenetic, behavioural and ecological perspectives. The book carefully outlines the interactions between the environment (the physical realm) and evolution and adaptation (the biological domain) that have set the composition and patterning of extant animal life.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements v
1. General Introduction to Vertebrate Muscular System 1
The Muscular System 3
Muscle Contraction 6
Tonic and Phasic Muscles 6
Development and Evolution of the Muscular System 8
Fish Muscular System 9
Classes of Vertebrates 9
Jawless Fishes (Class Agnatha) 10
Jawed Fishes (Gnathostomes) 11
Placoderms 12
Chondrichthyes 13
Osteichthyes 14
Tetrapod Muscular System 17
Amphibians 17
Reptiles 18
Birds 20
Mammals 23
2. Muscle Types 26
Introduction 26
Smooth Muscles 27
Cardiac Muscles 28
Intercalated Disks 30
Impulse Generation and Conduction in
Cardiac Muscles 30
Skeletal Muscles 31
Fiber types 31

Tonic Muscle Fibers 32
Slow Phasic (Red) Fibers 32
Fast Phasic (White) Fibers 33
Intermediate Phasic (Pink) Fibers 33
Motor Unit 34
Accessory structures associated with Muscle 34
Fasciae 34
Synovial Bursae 35
Tendon Sheaths 35
Muscle Pennation 35
Skeletal Muscle Movements and Functions 36
Muscle groups in Vertebrates 37
(i) Cutaneous Muscles 37
(ii) Muscles of Facial Expression 37
(iii) Muscles of Mastication 39
(iv) Hyoid Muscles 39
(v) Extrinsic Muscles of the Tongue 39
(vi) Intrinsic Muscles of the Tarynx 40
(vii) Muscles of the Neck 40
(viii) Muscles of the Thoracic Girdle 41
(ix) Muscles of the Thorax 41
(x) Muscles of the Abdominal Wall 42
(xi) Epaxial Muscles of the Back 42
(xii) Muscles of the Tail 42
(xiii) Sublumbar Muscles 43
(xiv) Muscles of the Shoulder 43
(xv) Muscles of the Elbow Joint 43
(xvi) Rotators of the Forearm 44
(xvii) Muscles of the Carpal Joint 44
(xviii) Muscles of the Digits 44
(xix) Outer Hip and Croup Muscles 45
(xx) Coudolateral Muscles of the Thigh
(Muscles of the Buttocks) 45
(xxi) Medial Muscles of the Thigh 45
(xxii) Deep Muscles of the Hip Joint 45
(xxiii) Special Muscles of the Stiffle Joint 45
(xxiv) Muscles of the Hock Joint 46
(xxv) Muscles of the Digits 46

3. Muscle Development 47
Origin of Muscle Cells 47
Origin of Vertebrate Musculature 47
Smooth Muscles 48
Cardiac Muscles 48
Skeletal Muscles 49
Muscles of the Head 49
Muscles of the Neck and Trunk 50
Muscles of the Limb 52
4. Muscle Contraction 53
Sarcomeric Structure 53
Contractile Proteins 55
Actin 55
Myosin 56
Tropomyosin 57
Troponin 57
Actinin 57
Mechanism of Muscle Contraction 58
Skeletal Muscles 58
Smooth Muscle 58
Regulation of Muscle Contraction 59
Skeletal Muscles 60
Cardiac Muscle 60
Smooth Muscles 61
Muscle Relaxation 62
Temperature and the Sliding Filament Mechanism 62
Types of Muscle Contraction 63
Isometric Contractions 63
Isotonic Contractions 63
Negative Work Contractions 64
Muscle Fatigue 64
Rigor Mortis 64
Shortening and Power Output of Muscles 65
5. Body Support in Vertebrates 66
Swimming 66
Fish Swimming 67
Fish Swimming Movements 68

Terrestrial Vertebrates 69
Birds 70
Tetrapods 71
Bow and Bowstring Analogy 71
Adaptations 73
Quadruped Limbs 75
Pectoral Limb 76
Pelvic Limb 77
Dynamics 80
6. Evolution of the Vertebrate Muscular System 82
Extraocular Muscles 84
Visceral Arches 84
Branchiomeric Muscles 86
Mandibular Muscles 87
Hyoid Muscles 88
Muscles of Third and Successive Pharyngeal Arches 91
Hypobranchial Muscles 92
Epibranchial Muscles 93
Axial musculature 94
Epaxial Muscles 95
Hypaxial Muscles 97
Appendicular Muscles 99
Pectoral Girdle Muscles 104
Pelvic Girdle Muscles 105
Electric Organs 105
Muscle Spindles 107
References 108
Index 111

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