Essential Guide to Food Additives 4th Edition

Essential Guide to Food Additives 4th Edition PDF

By Mike Saltmarsh

Essential Guide to Food Additives 4th Edition PDF. Food additives have played and still play an essential role in the food industry. Additives span a great range from simple materials like sodium bicarbonate, essential in the kitchen for making cakes, to mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids, an essential emulsifier in low fat spreads and in bread. It has been popular to criticise food additives, and in so doing, to lump them all together, but this approach ignores their diversity of history, source and use. This book includes food additives and why they are used, safety of food additives in Europe, additive legislation within the EU and outside Europe and the complete listing of all additives permitted in the EU. The law covering food additives in the EU which was first harmonised in 1989 has been amended frequently since then, but has now been consolidated with the publication of Regulations 1331/2008 and 1129/2011. This 4th edition of the Guide brings it up to date with the changes introduced by this legislation and by the ongoing review of additives by EFSA. Providing an invaluable resource for food and drink manufacturers, Essential Guide to Food Additives 4th Edition is the only work covering in detail every additive, its sources and uses. Those working in and around the food industry, students of food science and indeed anyone with an interest in what is added to their food will find this a practical book full of fascinating details.

Table of Contents

CHAPTER 1 Food Additives and Why They Are Used
1.1 What are Additives?
1.2 Preservatives
1.3 Antioxidants
1.4 Emulsifiers and Stabilisers
1.5 Colours
1.6 Sweeteners
1.7 Flavour Enhancers
1.8 Flavourings
1.9 Other Additives
1.10 Safety of Additives
1.11 Intolerance
1.12 “Clean Labels”
1.13 Conclusion
References
CHAPTER 2 Safety of Food Additives in Europe
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definition of a Food Additive
2.3 European Legislation and the Safety Assessment Process
2.3.1 The Framework Legislation
2.3.2 Legislation on Specific Classes of Additives
2.3.3 The Role of the European Food Safety Authority
2.3.4 General Criteria for the Use of Food Additives
2.4 Origin of “E” Numbers
2.5 Safety Testing of Food Additives
2.5.1 Toxicological Tests Required
2.5.1.1 Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion
2.5.1.2 Acute Toxicity
2.5.1.3 Subchronic Toxicity
2.5.1.4 Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
2.5.1.5 Chronic Toxicity/Carcinogenicity
2.5.1.6 Genotoxicity
2.5.1.7 Other Studies
2.5.2 Outcomes of Toxicity Tests
2.5.3 Relevance of Effects Observed in Animals for Human Risk Assessment
2.6 Risk Assessment of Food Additives
2.6.1 Derivation of an Acceptable Daily Intake
2.6.2 Comparison of Exposure to Food Additives in the Diet with ADIs
2.6.2.1 Methods for Estimating Exposure to Food Additives
2.6.2.2 Significance of Exceeding the ADI
2.6.3 Re-evaluation of Permitted Additives
2.7 Conclusions
References
CHAPTER 3 The Development of Food Additive Legislation in Europe
3.1 Fundamentals
3.2 Stage One – Early Harmonisation Attempts
3.3 Stage 2 – Creating the Internal Market
3.4 Stage Three – Changing Emphasis: from Trade to Public Health
CHAPTER 4 European Legislative Framework Controlling the Use of Food Additives
4.1 Introduction
4.2 EU Food Law Framework
4.2.1 EU Food Improvement Agents Package
4.2.2 EU Regulation (EC) No. 1333/2008 on Food Additives
4.2.3 EU Purity Criteria for Food Additives
4.3 EU Food Categories for the Use of Food Additives
4.4 EU Food Additives
4.4.1 Definition
4.4.2 What is not Considered a Food Additive in the EU?
4.4.3 EU Functional Classes of Food Additives and their Definitions
4.4.4 Carried-Over and Reverse Carried-Over Food Additives
4.5 Difference Between a Food Additive and a Processing Aid
4.6 How to Determine Whether a Substance Is a Food Additive or a Nutrient?
4.7 European Approval Process for Food Additives
4.7.1 European Union Lists of Approved Food Additives
4.7.2 EU Food Additives Database
4.8 EU Labelling Rules on Food Additives
4.8.1 Current and Future EU Labelling Legislation
4.8.2 Allergen Declaration
4.8.3 Specific Labelling for Six Food Colours
References
CHAPTER 5 Legislation for Food Additives Outside Europe
5.1 Introduction
5.1.1 Labelling Issues
5.2 Codex Alimentarius
5.2.1 Codex General Standard on Food Additives
5.2.2 JECFA
5.2.3 Specifications
5.3 Food Additives Legislation in Other Countries
5.3.1 USA
5.3.1.1 Framework
5.3.1.2 Food Additives
5.3.1.3 Prior-Sanctioned Ingredients
5.3.1.4 Substances that are Generally Recognised as Safe (GRAS)
5.3.1.5 Examples of Current GRAS Notifications on the Internet
5.3.1.6 Example of Additive Approval – Olestra
5.3.1.7 Flavours
5.3.1.8 Colours
5.3.1.9 Labelling
5.3.2 Canada
5.3.3 Japan
5.3.3.1 Labelling
5.3.4 Other Far East Countries
5.3.5 MERCOSUR
5.3.6 Middle East
5.3.7 Australia and New Zealand
5.3.7.1 Labelling
References
CHAPTER 6 E Numbers
Subject Index

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