Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry, 2nd Edition

Fermented meat products have been consumed for centuries in many different parts of the world and constitute one of the most important groups of food. Bacterial cultures are used in their manufacture to preserve the meat and confer particular textures and sensory attributes. Examples of fermented meats include salami, chorizo, pepperoni and saucisson.

This fully revised and expanded reference book on meat fermentation presents all the principle fermented meat products and the processing technologies currently used in their manufacture. The 54 chapters of this substantial book are grouped into the following sections:

  • Meat fermentation worldwide: overview, production and principles
  • Raw materials
  • Microbiology and starter cultures for meat fermentation
  • Sensory attributes
  • Product categories: general considerations
  • Semidry-fermented sausages
  • Dry-fermented sausages
  • Other fermented meats and poultry
  • Ripened meat products
  • Biological and chemical safety of fermented meat products
  • Processing sanitation and quality assurance

There are five new chapters in the second edition that address the following topics:  Smoking and new smoke flavourings; Probiotics; Methodologies for the study of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages; Low sodium in meat products; and Asian sausages.

Handbook of Fermented Meat and Poultry, Second Edition provides readers with a full overview of meat fermentation, the role of microorganisms naturally present and/or added as starter cultures, safety aspects and an account of the main chemical, biochemical, physical and microbiological changes that occur in processing and how they affect final quality. Finally, readers will find the main types of worldwide fermented meat products, typically produced in different areas, with the description of their main characteristics.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xvii

Preface xxi

Part I Meat Fermentation Worldwide: Overview, Production, and Principles 1

1 Dry-Fermented Sausages and Ripened Meats: An Overview 3
Fidel Toldra and Y.H. Hui

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Fermented sausages and ripened meats around the world 3

1.3 The importance of fermented sausages 5

Acknowledgement 6

References 6

2 Production and Consumption of Fermented Meat Products 7
Herbert W. Ockerman and Lopa Basu

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Current products 7

2.3 The Future 10

References 10

3 Principles of Meat Fermentation 13
Eero Puolanne and Esko Petaja-Kanninen

3.1 Introduction 13

3.2 Fermentation 14

3.3 Factors influencing fermentation 15

3.4 Proteolysis 15

3.5 Lipolysis 15

3.6 Antagonistic effects 16

References 16

4 Principles of Curing 19
Ronald B. Pegg and Karl O. Honikel

4.1 Definition of curing 19

4.2 History of curing 19

4.3 Legislation 20

4.4 Chemistry of nitrite and nitrate 20

4.5 Nitrite and nitrate in meat products 22

4.6 Nitrosomyoglobin (NOMb) 27

4.7 N-nitrosamine formation 28

4.8 Conclusion 29

References 29

5 Principles of Drying 31
Raul Grau, Ana Andres, and Jose M. Barat

5.1 Introduction 31

5.2 Basic principles of drying 31

5.3 Hurdle technology applied to dried meat and poultry products 32

5.4 Fundamentals of the drying of meat and poultry products 34

5.5 Drying kinetics modeling 35

5.6 Air conditioning and circulation in meat drying 35

References 36

6 Principles of Smoking 39
Zdzisław E. Sikorski and Izabela Sinkiewicz

6.1 Introduction 39

6.2 Wood-smoke composition 39

6.3 The preserving effect 40

6.4 The flavoring effect 41

6.5 Benefits and risks 42

6.6 Food engineering approach 43

6.7 Smoking procedures 45

References 45

Part II Raw Materials 47

7 The Biochemistry of Meat and Fat 49
Fidel Toldra and Milagro Reig

7.1 Introduction: muscle structure 49

7.2 Meat composition 49

7.3 Muscle proteases and lipases 51

7.4 Adipose tissue lipases 52

7.5 Post mortem muscle metabolism and quality 53

References 53

8 Ingredients 55
Jorge Ruiz and Trinidad Perez-Palacios

8.1 Introduction 55

8.2 Lean 55

8.3 Fat 56

8.4 Factors affecting the suitability of lean and fat for processing 56

8.5 Other ingredients 62

References 65

9 Additives 69
Pedro Roncales

9.1 Introduction 69

9.2 Acids and related additives 69

9.3 Antioxidants 70

9.4 Colorants 70

9.5 Emulsifiers 71

9.6 Flavor enhancers 72

9.7 Flavoring agents 73

9.8 Preservatives 74

9.9 Multipurpose additives: phosphates 75

References 76

10 Spices and Seasonings 79
Suey Ping Chi and Yun Chu Wu

10.1 Introduction 79

10.2 Ethnic preferences 79

10.3 Commonly used spices in processed meats 80

10.4 Botanical properties 80

10.5 Product forms and appearances 80

10.6 Chemical properties 80

10.7 Quality standards 81

10.8 Sensory properties 82

10.9 Applications in fermented meat processing 87

10.10 Conclusion 87

References 87

11 Casings 89
Yun Chu Wu, Suey Ping Chi, and Souad Christieans

11.1 Introduction 89

11.2 Natural casings 89

11.3 Artificial casings 93

11.4 Regulatory compliance 94

11.5 Handling casings 95

11.6 Quality determination 95

11.7 Conclusion 96

References 96

Part III Microbiology and Starter Cultures 97

12 Microorganisms in Traditional Fermented Meats 99
Sabine Leroy, Isabelle Lebert, and Regine Talon

12.1 Introduction 99

12.2 Traditional sausage manufacture 99

12.3 Description of ecosystems 100

12.4 Identification of technological microbiota 102

12.5 Conclusion 103

References 103

13 The Microbiology of Fermentation and Ripening 107
Margarita Garriga and Teresa Aymerich

13.1 Introduction 107

13.2 The manufacture of fermented sausages 107

13.3 Technological microflora 108

13.4 Spoilage microflora 111

13.5 Foodborne pathogens 111

13.6 Starter cultures 111

References 112

14 Bacteria 117
Pier Sandro Cocconcelli and Cecilia Fontana

14.1 Introduction 117

14.2 Bacterial starter cultures used for fermented meats 117

14.3 Starter cultures: technological advantage in the meat environment 120

14.4 Safety of selected meat starter-culture bacteria 123

14.5 Conclusion 124

References 124

15 Bioprotective Cultures 129
Graciela Vignolo, Patricia Castellano, and Silvina Fadda

15.1 Introduction 129

15.2 Starter cultures for meat fermentation 129

15.3 Competitiveness of starter cultures 131

15.4 Bioprotective cultures for fermented meat products 132

15.5 Conclusion 135

References 135

16 Yeasts 139
M.D. Selgas and M.L. García

16.1 Introduction 139

16.2 Presence of yeasts on meat sausages 139

16.3 Role of yeasts in meat products 140

16.4 Yeast starter cultures 144

References 144

17 Molds 147
Elettra Berni

17.1 Introduction 147

17.2 Fungal contamination in ripening environments 147

17.3 Fungal starter cultures 148

17.4 Lipolytic and proteolytic activity of starter cultures 149

17.5 Growth and competitiveness of starter cultures 149

17.6 Conclusion 151

References 151

18 Probiotics 155
Keizo Arihara

18.1 Introduction 155

18.2 Probiotics and probiotic foods 155

18.3 Probiotics and meat products 156

18.4 Prebiotics and synbiotics 157

18.5 Conclusion 158

References 158

19 The Genetics of Microbial Starters 161
Jamila Anba-Mondoloni, Marie-Christine Champomier-Verges, Monique Zagorec, Sabine Leroy, Emilie Dordet-Frisoni, Stella Planchon, and Regine Talon

19.1 Introduction 161

19.2 Chromosome elements 161

19.3 Plasmids 163

19.4 DNA transfer and genetic tools 163

19.5 Post-genomics studies 164

References 165

20 The Influence of Processing Parameters on Starter Culture Performance 169
F. Leroy, T. Goudman and L. De Vuyst

20.1 Introduction 169

20.2 Influence of raw materials 169

20.3 Influence of temperature 170

20.4 Influence of added fermentable carbohydrates 171

20.5 Influence of salting and drying 172

20.6 Influence of curing agents 173

20.7 Influence of spices 173

20.8 Influence of sausage caliber 173

20.9 Influence of maturation and molding 173

20.10 Conclusion 174

Acknowledgments 174

References 174

21 Methodologies for the Study of Microbial Ecology in Fermented Sausages 177
Valentina Alessandria, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Paola Dolci and Luca Cocolin

21.1 Introduction 177

21.2 Molecular approaches to the study of microbial ecology in fermented sausages 178

21.3 Culture-independent methods 178

21.4 Definition of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages by culture-independent methods 180

21.5 Culture-dependent methods 182

21.6 Definition of the microbial ecology in fermented sausages by culture-dependent methods 183

21.7 Conclusion 184

References 185

Part IV Sensory Attributes 189

22 Sensory Analyses-General Considerations 191
Asgeir Nilsen, Marit Rødbotten, Ken Prusa, and Chris Fedler

22.1 Introduction 191

22.2 Sensory methods 191

22.3 Sensory analysis of fermented meat products 192

References 194

23 Color 195
Jens K.S. Møller, Sisse Jongberg, and Leif H. Skibsted

23.1 Introduction 195

23.2 Color-forming compounds 195

23.3 Chemistry of meat color 195

23.4 Influence of fermentation parameters on color 197

23.5 Bacterial role in meat color 199

23.6 Natural and organic cured meat 200

23.7 Color stability of cured meat products 201

23.8 Conclusion 203

Acknowledgment 203

References 203

24 Texture 207
Shai Barbut

24.1 Introduction 207

24.2 Texture of commercial products 207

24.3 Texture development during fermentation 207

24.4 Texture development during ripening 210

24.5 Texture development during cooking (nondried/semidried) 211

24.6 Effects of processing parameters 213

24.7 Effects of product modification with non-meat ingredients 214

24.8 Conclusion 214

References 215

25 Flavor 217
Monica Flores and Alicia Olivares

25.1 Introduction 217

25.2 Precursor generation reactions of fermented meat flavor 217

25.3 Volatile compound generation reactions 218

25.4 Extraction and identification of volatile compounds 218

25.5 Elucidation of aroma active compounds 220

25.6 Relevance of volatile compounds in fermented meats 220

References 224

Part V Product Categories: General Considerations 227

26 Composition and Nutrition 229
Daniel Demeyer

26.1 Introduction 229

26.2 Nutrient supply from meat and meat products 229

26.3 Meat and meat products in healthy nutrition 232

26.4 Recommended meat intakes 233

26.5 Effects of fermentation on the nutritional and health properties of meat 234

References 236

27 Functional Dry-Fermented Sausages 241
Diana Ansorena and Iciar Astiasaran

27.1 Introduction 241

27.2 Modification of the mineral content in dry-fermented sausages 241

27.3 Fat modifications in dry-fermented sausages 243

27.4 Incorporation of fiber into dry-fermented sausages 245

27.5 Use of dry-fermented sausages as probiotics 246

27.6 Incorporation of vitamins 246

27.7 Conclusion 247

References 247

28 Low-Sodium Products 251
Fidel Toldra and Jose M. Barat

28.1 Introduction 251

28.2 Relevance of salt in fermented meats 251

28.3 Strategies for sodium reduction 252

28.4 Effects of sodium reduction on quality and safety 253

References 254

29 International Standards: United States 259
Elizabeth Boyle and Melvin C. Hunt

29.1 Introduction 259

29.2 US regulatory process 259

29.3 Regulatory definitions and specifications 260

29.4 HACCP options 261

29.5 Validation 261

References 261

30 International Standards: Europe 263
Reinhard Fries

30.1 Introduction 263

30.2 Quality 263

30.3 Microbiological safeguarding in food chains 266

30.4 Generating microbiological data in practice 268

30.5 Microbiological criteria for foodstuffs in Reg. (EC) 2073/2005 270

References 270

31 Packaging and Storage 273
Byungrok Min and Dong Uk Ahn

31.1 Introduction 273

31.2 Functions of food packaging 273

31.3 Packaging materials 274

31.4 Packaging systems 276

31.5 Storage 279

References 279

Part VI Semidry-Fermented Sausages 281

32 US Products-Semidry Sausage 283
Robert E. Rust

32.1 Introduction 283

32.2 Methods of acidification 283

32.3 Food safety 283

32.4 Manufacturing processes 284

32.5 Different types of US semidry sausage 285

Reference 285

33 European Products 287
Friedrich-Karl Lucke

33.1 Introduction 287

33.2 Definition of “semidry-fermented sausage” in Europe 287

33.3 General remarks on the manufacture of European-style semidry-fermented sausages 288

33.4 Types of European-style semidry-fermented sausage 290

33.5 Safety and stability 291

33.6 Conclusion 291

References 291

Part VII Dry-Fermented Sausages 293

34 US Products-Dry Sausage 295
Robert Maddock

34.1 Introduction 295

34.2 European versus US products 295

34.3 Definitions 295

34.4 US manufacturing processes for dried sausages 296

34.5 Basic formulations and processes for selected large-diameter dried sausages 297

34.6 Safe production of dried sausages in the United States 298

34.7 Process control points for dried sausage manufacturing 298

References 299

35 Mediterranean Products 301
Eva Hierro, Manuela Fernandez, Lorenzo de la Hoz, and Juan A. Ordon˜ ez

35.1 Introduction 301

35.2 Production of Mediterranean dry-fermented sausages 301

35.3 Changes during ripening of Mediterranean dry-fermented sausages 303

35.4 Innovation in Mediterranean dry-fermented sausages 306

35.5 Conclusion 308

References 309

36 Northern European Products 313
Askild Holck, Even Heir, Tom C. Johannessen, and Lars Axelsson

36.1 Introduction 313

36.2 Characteristics of Northern European sausages 313

36.3 Sausages of Central Europe 316

36.4 Sausages of Eastern Europe 317

36.5 Sausages of the Nordic countries 318

References 320

37 Asian Products 321
Ming-Ju Chen, Rung-Jen Tu, and Sheng-Yao Wang

37.1 Introduction 321

37.2 Chinese products 321

37.3 South East Asian products 324

37.4 Himalayan fermented meat products 326

References 326

Part VIII Fermented Products from Poultry and Other Meats 329

38 Fermented Poultry Sausages 331
E. Arnaud, S.J. Santchurn, and A. Collignan

38.1 Introduction 331

38.2 Fermented poultry sausages 332

38.3 Other fermented products 336

References 336

39 Fermented Sausages from Other Meats 339
Emin Burcin Ozvural and Halil Vural

39.1 Introduction 339

39.2 Fermented products from other meats 339

39.3 Scientific studies on other meats 340

References 342

Part IX Ripened Meat Products 345

40 US Products-Dry-Cured Hams 347
Dana J. Hanson, Gregg Rentfrow, M. Wes Schilling, W. Benjy Mikel, Kenneth J. Stalder, and Nicholas L. Berry 

40.1 Introduction 347

40.2 Country ham standards 347

40.3 Commercial dry-cured ham production in the United States 348

40.4 Ham curing at home 351

40.5 Safety 352

40.6 Cooking 352

40.7 Research 352

References 353

41 Central and South American Products 355
Silvina Fadda and Graciela Vignolo

41.1 Introduction 355

41.2 Meat consumption and habits 355

41.3 Meat production in Latin American countries 355

41.4 Typical meat products, microbial ecology, and safety risks 356

41.5 Conclusion 359

References 359

42 Mediterranean Products 361
Mario Estevez, Sonia Ventanas, David Morcuende, and Jesus Ventanas

42.1 Introduction 361

42.2 Production of dry-cured hams 361

42.3 Spanish dry-cured hams 362

42.4 Italian dry-cured hams 365

42.5 French dry-cured hams 367

References 368

43 Nordic Products 371
Torunn Thauland Haseth, Gudjon Thorkelsson, Eero Puolanne, and Maan Singh Sidhu

43.1 Introduction 371

43.2 Norwegian fenalår 371

43.3 Norwegian pinnekjøtt 372

43.4 Norwegian dry-cured ham (spekeskinke) 373

43.5 Icelandic hangikjöt 373

43.6 Faroese skerpikjøt 373

43.7 Greenlandic mattaq and igunaq 374

43.8 Finnish Lapin Poron kylmäsavuliha 374

43.9 Finnish Lapin Poron kuivaliha 375

References 375

44 Asian Products 377
Guang-Hong Zhou and Gai-Ming Zhao

44.1 Introduction 377

44.2 History and traits of Jinhua ham 377

44.3 Processing of Jinhua ham 377

44.4 Possible factors causing differences in Chinese dry-cured hams 380

References 381

Part X Biological and Chemical Safety of Fermented Meat Products 383

45 Spoilage Microorganisms: Risks and Control 385
Marie-Christine Champomier-Verges and Monique Zagorec

45.1 Introduction 385

45.2 Putative spoilage microorganisms 385

45.3 Examples of spoilage occurring in fermented sausage 386

45.4 Strategies for spoilage control 386

45.5 Conclusion 387

References 388

46 Pathogens: Risks and Control 389
Panagiotis Skandamis and George-John E. Nychas

46.1 Introduction 389

46.2 Hazard identification 390

46.3 Hazard characterization: defense mechanism 390

46.4 Exposure assessment 392

46.5 Control measures 406

References 409

47 Biogenic Amines: Risks and Control 413
M. Carmen Vidal-Carou, M. Teresa Veciana-Nogues, M. Luz Latorre-Moratalla, and Sara Bover-Cid

47.1 Introduction: biogenic amine classification and relevance 413

47.2 Health risks of biogenic amines in fermented sausages 413

47.3 Aminogenesis in fermented sausages and measures for its control 415

47.4 Conclusion 424

References 424

48 Toxic Compounds of Chemical Origin 429
Milagro Reig and Fidel Toldra

48.1 Introduction 429

48.2 N-nitrosamines 429

48.3 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) 430

48.4 Oxidation 431

48.5 Veterinary drug residues 431

48.6 Environmental contaminants 433

References 433

49 Foodborne Outbreaks 435
Colin Pierre

49.1 Introduction 435

49.2 Staphylococcus aureus 435

49.3 Salmonella spp. 435

49.4 Verotoxigenic strains of Escherichia coli 436

49.5 Yersinia enterocolitica 437

49.6 Listeria monocytogenes 437

49.7 Thermotolerant Campylobacter 438

49.8 Parasites 438

49.9 Conclusion 438

References 438

Part XI Processing Sanitation and Quality Assurance 441

50 Basic Sanitation 443
Beatriz Melero, Ana M. Diez, and Jordi Rovira

50.1 Introduction 443

50.2 Raw materials and ingredients 443

50.3 Plant environment 443

50.4 Personnel hygiene and training 446

References 448

51 Processing Plant Sanitation 451
Jordi Rovira, Ana M. Diez, and Beatriz Melero

51.1 Introduction 451

51.2 Fermented meat products and poultry 451

51.3 Fermented sausage processing plant sanitation 452

51.4 Methods of evaluating the sanitation state of a plant 457

51.5 Final considerations 458

References 458

52 Quality Control 461
Fidel Toldra, Monica Flores, and M. Concepcion Aristoy

52.1 Introduction 461

52.2 Quality controls at each stage of processing 461

52.3 Control of drying 462

52.4 Control of sensory quality 462

References 466

53 HACCP: Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points 469
M.J. Fraqueza and A.S. Barreto

53.1 The HACCP concept: why use it 469

53.2 HACCP model for fermented sausages: a generic model for HACCP implementation in traditional establishments and small fermented sausage plants 470

53.3 Validation of the operative HACCP plan 483

53.4 Revision of the HACCP plan 483

53.5 Certification of food safety management systems 484

References 484

54 Quality Assurance Plan 487
Friedrich-Karl Lucke

54.1 Introduction 487

54.2 General remarks on the purchase and selection of raw materials 487

54.3 Quality assurance plans and records for fermented sausages 488

54.4 Quality assurance plans and records for raw dry hams 490

54.5 Slicing, packaging, and storage of fermented sausages and raw dry hams 492

54.6 End-product testing 492

54.7 General remarks about the structure and extent of documentation 493

References 493

Index 495

This Book is For Premium Members Only

Become a Premium Member or Try Free Download Books