HACCP: A Practical Approach 3rd Edition

By Sara Mortimore and Carol Wallace

HACCP: A Practical Approach 3rd Edition PDF has been updated to include the current best practice and new developments in HACCP application since the last edition was published in 1998. This book is intended to be a compendium of up-to-date thinking and best practice approaches to the development, implementation, and maintenance of HACCP programs for food safety management. Introductory chapters set the scene and update the reader on developments on HACCP over the last 15 years. The preliminary stages of HACCP, including preparation and planning and system design, are covered first, followed by a consideration of food safety hazards and their control. Prerequisite program coverage has been significantly expanded in this new edition reflecting its development as a key support system for HACCP. The HACCP plan development and verification and maintenance chapters have also been substantially updated to reflect current practice and a new chapter on application within the food supply chain has been added. Appendices provide a new set of case studies of practical HACCP application plus two new case studies looking at lessons learned through food safety incident investigation. Pathogen profiles have also been updated by experts to provide an up-to-date summary of pathogen growth and survival characteristics that will be useful to HACCP teams. The book is written both for those who are developing HACCP systems for the first time and for those who need to update, refresh and strengthen their existing systems.  New materials and new tools to assist the HACCP team have been provided and the current situation on issues that are still undergoing international debate, such as operational prerequisite programs.  All tools such as decision trees and record-keeping formats are provided to be of assistance and are not obligatory to successful HACCP.  Readers are guided to choose those that are relevant to their situations and which they find are helpful in their HACCP endeavors.
Table of Contents

Foreword

Chapter 1: An Introduction to HACCP and Its Role in Food Safety Control

1.1 HACCP: The Basic Questions Answered

1.1.1 What Is HACCP?

1.1.2 What Are the Principles of HACCP?

1.1.3 Where Did HACCP Come from?

1.1.4 So, Why Should You Use HACCP?

1.1.5 Why Can´t We Rely on Inspection and Testing?

1.1.6 What Are the Benefits?

1.1.7 Is HACCP All I Need to Do for Food Safety?

1.1.8 Can HACCP Be Used to Reduce Food Safety Risk in the Absence of Adequate PRPs?

1.1.9 Is HACCP Applicable to Everyone?

1.1.10 Why Should I Revisit My HACCP Program? I´ve Done This Already

1.2 External Position and Drivers for HACCP Use

1.2.1 Customers and Consumers

1.2.2 International Government Regulation

1.2.3 Government Inspectors and Enforcers

1.2.4 International Standardization

1.2.5 Media Issues and Brand Protection

1.3 Problems with Effective Implementation of HACCP: Why HACCP Fails

1.3.1 Examples of Food Safety Incidents

1.3.2 Failure to Understand HACCP: Common Misconceptions

1.4 Key Points Summary

Chapter 2: Preparation and Planning to Achieve Effective Food Safety Management

2.1 The Key Stages of HACCP

2.2 Preparing the Way: Personnel and Training

2.2.1 Personnel Resources

2.2.2 What Are the Training Requirements?

2.3 What Is Our Current Status? Baseline Audit and Gap Analysis

2.3.1 Performing the Gap Analysis: Questions to Consider for PRP Assessment

2.4 Use of the Hazard Analysis and Risk Evaluation Process as an Enabler to GMP Improvement

2.5 How Do We Get There? Project Planning

2.5.1 What Structure Should the HACCP System Take?

2.5.2 Using Project Planning Techniques

2.5.3 Drawing up the Project Plan

2.6 Continuous Improvement

2.7 Key Point Summary

Chapter 3: Hazards, Their Significance, and Control

3.1 Hazards and Their Significance

3.1.1 Hazards and the Consumer

3.1.2 Assessing Hazard Significance

3.2 Understanding Control Measures for Practical Hazard Control

3.3 Biological Hazards

3.3.1 Biological Hazards and the Consumer

3.3.2 Major Pathogenic Bacteria of Relevance to Food

3.3.3 Viruses

3.3.4 Parasites and Protozoa

3.3.5 Prions

3.3.6 Emerging Pathogens

3.3.7 Animal Pathogens of Relevance to the Global Food Supply Chain

3.4 Control of Biological Hazards

3.4.1 Intrinsic Factors

3.4.2 Process Technologies

3.4.3 Summary of Control Options for Biological Hazards (Table3.7)

3.5 Chemical Hazards

3.5.1 Mycotoxins

3.5.2 Marine Toxins (Fish and Shellfish Poisoning)

3.5.3 Cleaning Chemicals

3.5.4 Pesticides

3.5.5 Allergens and Food Intolerances

3.5.6 Toxic Metals (also known as heavy metals)

3.5.7 Nitrites, Nitrates, and N-nitroso Compounds

3.5.8 Polychlorinated Biphenyls

3.5.9 Dioxins and Furans

3.5.10 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

3.5.11 Plasticizers and Packaging Migration

3.5.12 Veterinary Residues

3.5.13 Melamine and Cyanuric Acid

3.5.14 Chemical Additives

3.6 Control of Chemical Hazards

3.6.1 Summary of Control Options for Chemical Hazards (Table3.9)

3.7 Physical Hazards

3.7.1 Glass

3.7.2 Metal

3.7.3 Stones

3.7.4 Wood

3.7.5 Plastic

3.7.6 Pests

3.7.7 Intrinsic Material

3.8 Control of Physical Hazards

3.8.1 Summary of Control Options for Physical Hazards (Table3.10)

3.9 Radiological Hazards

3.10 Conclusions

3.11 Key Points Summary

Chapter 4: Prerequisites for Food Safety: PRPs and Operational PRPs

4.1 Definitions and Standards

4.1.1 Definitions

4.1.2 Standards and Guidelines

4.2 Environment, Programs, and People

4.2.1 Environmental Focus: Design for Good Hygiene

4.2.2 Programs

4.2.3 People

4.3 Validation and Verification of PRPs

4.4 Key Points Summary

Chapter 5: Designing Food Safety

5.1 Product Safety Design

5.1.1 Designing Your Recipe Formulation

5.1.2 Designing Safe Processes

5.1.3 Safe Raw Materials for Safe Product Design

5.1.4 Establishing a Safe and Achievable Shelf-Life

What Factors Could Cause the Product to Become Unsafe?

How Do You Know When Pathogens Reach Unsafe Levels?

5.2 Prerequisite Program Design

5.3 Equipment and Factory Design for Product Safety

5.4 Product Safety Assessment

5.4.1 Development Specification

5.4.2 Product Concept Safety Considerations

5.5 Key Points Summary

Chapter 6: How to Do a HACCP Study

6.1 What Is the HACCP Plan?

6.1.1 The Process Flow Diagram

6.1.2 The HACCP Control Chart

6.2 Define Your Terms of Reference

6.3 Describe the Products and Their Intended Use

6.4 Constructing a Process Flow Diagram

6.4.1 Types of Data

6.4.2 Style

6.4.3 Verify as Correct During Manufacture

6.5 Carrying out the Hazard Analysis

6.5.1 The Structured Approach to Hazard Analysis

6.5.2 Questions to Be Considered

6.5.3 Ensuring Sufficient Detail

6.5.4 Severity and Hazard Significance

6.5.5 Reference Materials: Where to Find Them and How to Use Them

6.5.6 Identifying Control Measures

6.6 Making Food Safety Decisions

6.6.1 Where Are the Critical Control Points?

6.6.2 Use of CCP Decision Trees for Raw Materials

6.6.3 Use of CCP Decision Trees for Process Steps

6.6.4 Operational PRPs

6.7 Building Up the HACCP Control Chart

6.7.1 What Are the Critical Limits?

6.7.2 Validating Your Critical Limits

6.7.3 Confirming Process Capability

6.7.4 Finding the Right Monitoring Procedure

6.7.5 Corrective Action Requirements

6.8 Validation of the HACCP Plan

6.9 Key Point Summary

Chapter 7: Implementation, Verification, and Maintenance for Ongoing Risk Management

7.1 Implementation of the HACCP plan

7.1.1 Preliminary Steps: Challenging Your Controls and Corrective Action Systems

7.1.2 Implementation Requirements and Action Planning

7.2 Set Up CCP Management Systems: Monitoring, Corrective Action and Record Keeping Requirements

7.2.1 Developing Monitoring Records

7.2.2 Monitoring Methods: Use of Statistical Techniques

7.2.3 Corrective Action: Requirements for Reporting and Acting on Deviations

7.2.4 Feedback on Results

7.3 Additional Facilities and Equipment for HACCP Implementation

7.3.1 Facilities

7.3.2 Equipment

7.3.3 CCP Identification on Facilities and Equipment

7.3.4 Modifications: Are They Complete?

7.4 Education and Training

7.4.1 Foundation Training

7.4.2 CCP Monitors

7.5 Confirm Implementation Actions Are Complete: Verification of Implementation

7.6 Verification as a Way of Life

7.6.1 Records Review: Analysis of Data

Why Analyze Data?

What Data Should Be Available?

How Should the Data Be Analyzed?

7.6.2 Calibration

7.6.3 Verification Through Observation and Scheduled Audit

7.7 HACCP system Maintenance

7.7.1 Safety Review for Product and Process Changes

7.7.2 Information Searching: Keeping Up to Date with Emerging Issues/Hazards

7.7.3 Formal Periodic System Review

7.7.4 Documentation Update: Amending Your HACCP plan

7.7.5 Ongoing Training Requirements

7.7.6 Incident Management

7.7.7 Ongoing Documentation and Record Keeping

7.8 Key Points Summary

Chapter 8: Considerations for HACCP Application in Different Supply Chain Sectors

8.1 Introduction

8.2 HACCP Application in Packaging Production

8.3 HACCP Application in Animal Feed

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 What Are the Hazards?

8.3.3 Typical Control Measures

8.3.4 Approach(es) Taken

8.3.5 Difficulties and Issues

8.4 HACCP Application in Primary Production

8.5 HACCP Application at Slaughter/Harvest

8.6 HACCP in Manufacturing

8.7 HACCP Application in Retail: The Supermarket

8.7.1 Introduction: HACCP in the Supermarket

8.7.2 Approach Taken

8.7.3 What Are the Hazards?

8.7.4 Benefits

8.7.5 Challenges and Issues

8.8 HACCP Application in Catering

8.8.1 Introduction

8.8.2 What Are the Hazards?

8.8.3 Typical Control Measures

8.8.4 Approaches Taken

8.8.5 Difficulties and Issues

8.9 Special Considerations for HACCP Application in Chain Restaurants

8.9.1 Introduction

8.9.2 What Are the Key Differences?

8.10 HACCP in Storage and Distribution

8.10.1 Introduction

8.10.2 What Are the Hazards?

8.10.3 Typical Control Measures

8.10.4 Approaches Taken

8.10.5 Difficulties and Issues

8.11 The Consumer

8.12 Reflections of HACCP Application Throughout the Food Supply Chain

Appendix B Pathogen Profiles

Pathogen Profiles-Part 1: Bacterial Pathogens

Pathogen Profiles-Part 2: Toxigenic Fungi

Pathogen Profiles-Part 3: Foodborne Viral Pathogens

Appendix C Glossary

Appendix D Abbreviations and Definitions

Index

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