Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe

Infectious Diseases of Wild Mammals and Birds in Europe is a key resource on the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases in European wildlife that covers the distinctive nature of diseases as they occur in Europe, including strains, insect vectors, reservoir species, and climate, as well as geographical distribution of the diseases and European regulations for reporting, diagnosis and control. Divided into sections on viral infections, bacterial infections, fungal and yeast infections, and prion infections, this definitive reference provides valuable information on disease classification and properties, causative agents, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and implications for human, domestic and wild animal health.

• Brings together extensive research from many different disciplines into one integrated and highly useful definitive reference.
• Zoonotic risks to human health, as well as risks to pets and livestock are highlighted.
• Each disease is covered separately with practical information on the animal species in which the disease has been recorded, clinical signs of the disease, diagnostic methods, and recommended treatments and vaccination.
• Wildlife vaccination and disease surveillance techniques are described.
• Examines factors important in the spread of disease such as changing climate, the movement of animals through trade, and relaxations in the control of wide animal populations.

About The Author
Dolores Gavier-Widén, DVM, MS, PhD, Associate Professor at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Deputy Head of Department of Pathology and Wildlife Diseases, National Veterinary Institute (SVA), Uppsala, Sweden. Dolores is the president of the Wildlife Disease Association (WDA) (2012-2013) and past-president (2006-2008) of the European Section of WDA (EWDA). She is reviewer for many journals, and has written book chapters and many scientific papers. Dolores has worked on wildlife disease research internationally, in particular on tuberculosis, calicivirus infection of leporids, prion diseases, and on the ongoing EU project “Novel technologies for surveillance of emerging and re-emerging infections of wildlife”. She is consultant for EFSA, EC, research agencies and veterinary and public health organisations. She has worked on wildlife pathology and diagnostics of infectious diseases of free-ranging and farmed wild mammals and birds for more than 20 years.

J. Paul Duff, BSc (zool), MVB, MSc, MRCVS, is based at AHVLA, Penrith, Cumbria, UK. Paul is the past-president of the EWDA (2009-2010) and a past Council member of the British Veterinary Zoological Society. He is a veterinary surgeon and zoologist who has worked for more than 20 years investigating disease in wild animals, exotic animals and livestock. Since 1998, he has been the project leader for the AHVLA Diseases of Wildlife Scheme (AHVLADoWS). This is the first government funded scheme for the investigation and surveillance of wildlife diseases in England and Wales. Since 1995, editor of the OIE Annual Report, ‘Wildlife Diseases in the UK’ which officially summarises wildlife disease reported in the UK each year for the Office International d’Epizooties (the World Animal Health Association). He is project leader, with Dolores Gavier-Widén, for the EU sponsored ‘Wildlife related emerging diseases and zoonoses’, Special Interest Group.

Anna Meredith MA VetMB PhD CertLAS DZooMed MRCVS, RCVS Recognised Specialist in Zoo and Wildlife Medicine, Head of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Service, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Hospital for Small Animals, UK. Anna has extensive publication and book editing experience in the exotic animal and wildlife field, as well as being actively involved in many areas of ongoing wildlife research, including red squirrel and osprey surveillance in Scotland, and is currently carrying out full time DEFRA- funded research into emerging diseases in UK wildlife. She is a past president of the British Veterinary Zoological Society and a member of EWDA and EAZWV. She teaches wildlife medicine to veterinarians at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Table of Contents

Notes on Contributors  vii

Preface  xi

Cover Image Acknowledgements  xiii

Acknowledgements  xiv

Section 1 Viral Infections  1

1. Herpesvirus Infections  3

2. Influenza Virus Infections 37

3. Avian Paramyxovirus Infections  59

4. Circovirus Infections 67

5. Calicivirus Infections  73

6. Lyssavirus Infections  86

7. Morbillivirus Infections  99

8. Orbivirus Infections  119

9. Flavivirus Infections  128

10. Pestivirus Infections  146

11. Picornavirus Infections  168

12. Parvovirus Infections  181

13. Poxvirus Infections  191

14. Adenovirus Infections  210

15. Retrovirus Infections  219

16. Papillomavirus and Polyomavirus Infections  225

17. Coronavirus Infections  234

18. Bunyavirus Infections  241

19. Other Virus Infections  249

Section 2 Bacterial Infections  263

20. Mycobacteria Infections  265

21. Yersinia Infections 293

22. Tularaemia  303

23. Pasteurella Infections  310

24. Brucellosis  318

25. Anthrax  329

26. Chlamydiaceae Infections  336

27. Borrelia Infections  345

28. Rickettsiales Infections  363

29. Mycoplasma Infections  372

30. Escherichia Infections 381

31. Salmonella Infections  386

32. Campylobacter Infections 398

33. Leptospira Infections  402

34. Coxiella burnetii Infection  409

35. Listeria Infections  413

36. Clostridium Species and Botulism  417

37. Other Bacterial Infections  428

Section 3 Fungal and Yeast Infections  453

38. Aspergillosis  455

39. Yeast Infections  462

40. Other Fungal Infections  466

41. Harmful Algal Blooms including Cyanobacterial Toxicosis 476

42. Mycotoxicosis  482

Section 4 Prion Infections  487

43. Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies  489

Section 5 Appendices 497

Appendix 1. Some Wildlife Related Emerging Diseases (WiREDS) in Europe  499

Appendix 2. Selected Zoonotic Pathogens with European Wildlife Reservoirs/Hosts  501

Appendix 3. Selected Socio-Economically Important Wildlife Related Pathogens and Diseases in Europe  503

Appendix 4. Wildlife Pathogens with Arthropod Vectors 505

Appendix 5. Pathogens Suspected of Causing Wild Population Declines, or of Conservation Importance  506

Appendix 6. Diseases by Clinical Presentations, Mammals  507

Appendix 7. Diseases by Clinical Presentations, Birds 509

Appendix 8. Species (Family)-Specific Wildlife Diseases in Europe  511

Subject Index  513

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