Equine Acute Abdomen

Equine Acute Abdomen By James N. Moore, Nathaniel A. White And Tim S. Mair

By James N. Moore, Nathaniel A. White and Tim S. Mair

Equine Acute Abdomen PDF allows users to effectively diagnose and treat any acute disease of the stomach, intestines, peritoneum, liver, and abdominal wall. Its authorship includes over 20 internationally recognized experts that provide critical information needed by practitioners for management of abdominal diseases. This informative resource provides a thorough discussion of normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology. Surgical techniques are broken down into an easy-to-read step-by-step format. This highly visual presentation, with over 410 illustrations, is a necessary edition to an equine practitioner’s library.

Published by Teton New Media in the USA and distributed by Manson Publishing outside of North America.

Read more: Manual of Equine Lameness, 2nd Edition

Table of Contents

Normal Anatomy and Physiology
Gross and Microscopic Anatomy of the Equine Gastrointestinal Tract Thomas M. Krunkosky, Carla Jarrett, and James N. Moore
Esophagus-Stomach Junction
Stomach-Small Intestine Junction
Small Intestine
Large Intestine
Physiology of the Digestive Tract
Gastric Secretory Function – Michael J. Murray
Small Intestine Function – David E. Freeman
Digestive Physiology – Anatomy
Intraluminal Digestion
Absorption of Ions and Water
Absorption of Carbohydrate, Protein and Fat
Iron Absorption
Calcium and Magnesium Absorption
Intestinal Secretion
Control of Motility
Function of the Ileum
Large Bowel Function – Marco A.F. Lopes
Motility Patterns and Transit of Contents
Microbial Activity and Fermentation
Secretion and Absorption
Liver Function – Tim S. Mair
Bile Acid Metabolism and Excretion of Bile
Protein Metabolism
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Lipid Metabolism
Detoxification and Drug Metabolism
Effects of Feeding on Equine Gastrointestinal Function or Physiology Marco A.F. Lopes
Feeding Grain
Feeding Lush Grass
Replacing Grain With Fat
Feeding Mature Grass and Poor Quality Hay
Feeding Large Meals Intermittently and Fasting
Intestinal Motility and Transit Peter C. Rakestraw
Physiology of Normal Motility
Pathophysiology of Ileus
Treatment of Motility Disorders in the Horse

Pathophysiology of Gastrointestinal Diseases
Pathophysiology of Gastric Ulcer Disease Michael J. Murray
Gastric Ulcer Disease
Pathophysiology of Gastrointestinal Disease: Obstruction and Strangulation Anthony T. Blikslager
Simple Obstruction
Strangulating Obstruction
Intestinal Reparative Mechanisms
Prevention and Treatment of Postoperative Intraabdominal Adhesions in Horses P.O. Eric Mueller
Current Concepts in Pathophysiology of Adhesion Formation
Diagnosis of Intraabdominal Adhesions
Current Concepts in Prevention of Adhesion Formation
Separation of Adhesiogenic Surfaces
Treatment of Intraabdominal Adhesions
Adhesion Prevention Strategies
Pathophysiology of Peritonitis John F. Peroni
Anatomy and Physiology of the Peritoneum
Etiology of Peritonitis
Clinical Presentation
Diagnostic Approach
Pathophysiology of Enteritis and Colitis Harold C. McKenzie
Osmotic Diarrhea
Decreased Absorption
Endothelial Dysfunction
Specific Diseases
Malabsorption Syndromes Tim S. Mair and Thomas J. Divers
Causes of Malabsorption Syndrome
Clinical Signs
Liver Diseases and Liver Failure Tim S. Mair and Thomas J. Divers
Causes of Liver Disease
Diagnosis of Liver Disease
Theiler’s Disease (Serum Hepatitis)
Other Causes of Acute Hepatic Disease and Failure in Adult Horses
Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Intoxication
Cholangiohepatitis and Choledocholithiasis
Other Biliary Conditions
Chronic Active Hepatitis
Klein Grass (Panicium Coloratum) Toxicity
Alsike Clover Toxicity
Hepatic Neoplasia
Hepatic Amyloidosis
Iron Overload, Hemochromatosis
Right Hepatic Lobe Atrophy
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome: Endotoxemia Reconsidered Clare E. Bryant and James N. Moore
Responses to Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns
Receptors for Gram-Negative Bacteria and Bacterial Ligands
Receptors for Gram-Positive Bacteria and Bacterial Ligands
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Inflammatory Mediators and Their Source in the Horse

Intestinal Parasitism
Intestinal Parasitism Christopher J. Proudman
Principles of Iintestinal Parasitism
Strongylus Vulgaris
Parascaris Equorum
Other Intestinal Parasites

Epidemiology of Colic Noah D. Cohen
General Epidemiologic Considerations
Incidence of Colic
Factors that Predispose to Colic
Factors Indicating the Need for Surgical Management of Colic
Frequency of and Factors Associated with Survival from Colic and Colic Surgery
Study of Colic Problems in Individuals and Herds

Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Disease Emma L. Rowe and Nathaniel A.White
Physical Examination
Hematology, Blood Gases, and Serum Biochemistry
Fecal Examination
Transit Time
Exploratory Laparotomy
False Colic
Decision for Surgery

Medical Management
Medical Management of Gastrointestinal Diseases Tim S. Mair
Choice of Analgesics in Colic
Treatment of Intestinal Spasm and Spasmodic Colic
Treatment of Obstruction
Treatment of Flatulence and Tympany
Treatment of Ileus
Treatment of Shock Kevin T. T. Corley
Support of the Cardiovascular System
Fluid Therapy
Acid Base Balance
Types of Fluid
Oral Fluids
Delivery Systems
Recognition of Hypovolemia and Dehydration
Treatment Strategies
Treatment of Endotoxemia Kevin T. T. Corley and Gayle D. Hallowell
Drugs that Bind or Block Endotoxin
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Modulation of the Coagulation System
Drugs Affecting Intracellular Metabolism
Treatment of Peritonitis John F. Peroni
Medical Treatment
Interventional Treatment
Complications and Prognosis
Diagnosis and Treatment of Enteritis and Colitis in the Horse Harold C. McKenzie
Specific Syndromes
Supportive Therapies
Specific Therapies
Specific Diseases
Nonsurgical Management of Nephrosplenic Entrapment of the Large Colon Joanne Hardy
Clinical Presentation
Nonsurgical Correction
Complications and Prognosis
Prevention of Recurrence
Colic in the Foal Martin O. Furr
Abdominal Radiography
Case Synthesis and Management
Surgical Treatment
Gastroduodenal Ulceration
Small-Intestinal Obstruction
Large-Colon Obstruction

Nutritional Management
Nutritional Management of the Colic Patient Ray J. Geor
Rationale for Early Initiation of Nutritional Support after Colic and Intestinal Surgery
Estimating Nutrient Requirements
Modes of Nutritional Therapy
Feeding Management of Specific Gastrointestinal Conditions

Anesthesia for Abdominal Surgery
Anesthesia for Horses with Colic Cynthia M. Trim
Preanesthetic Assessment
Anesthetic Agents
Induction of Anesthesia
Maintenance of Anesthesia
Anesthetic Agents in Foals
Cardiovascular Support
Hypercapnia and Hypoxemia
Airway Management
Recovery from Anesthesia
Anesthesia for Surgery in the Standing Horse

Surgery for Acute Abdominal Disease
Preparation of the Patient David E. Freeman
Patient Preparation
Antiseptics Agents
Draping the Surgery Site
Surgical Exploration and Manipulation David E. Freeman
Ventral Midline Incision
Inguinal Approach
Flank Laparotomy
Alternative Approaches
Abdominal Exploration
Examination and Handling of Small Intestine
Examination and Handling of Large Intestine
Special Circumstances
Intestinal Placement
Surgical Techniques David E. Freeman
Surgical Team
Surgical Environment and Equipment
Gowns, Drapes and Accessories
Decompression and Drainage
Laparotomy Sponges
Surgical Instruments and Suture
Stapling Instruments
Miscellaneous Instruments
Surgical Procedures in the Small Intestine
Intestinal Viability David E. Freeman
Small Intestine
Large Colon and Cecum
Small Colon
Large-Colon Enterotomy, Resection and Anastomosis Joanne Hardy
Large-Colon Enterotomy
Large Colon Resection
Small Intestinal Resection and Anastomosis David E. Freeman
Extent of Resection
Resection of Mesentery
Resection and Anastomosis
Stoma Size
End-to-End Anastomosis
Stapled Jejunojejunostomy
Everted Triangulated Stapled Anastomosis
Stapled versus Handsewn Anastomoses for Jejunojejunostomy
Jejunocecal and Ileocecal Anastomoses
Pelvic Flexure Colotomy
Abdominal Closure David E. Freeman
Closure of the Peritoneum
Linea Alba Closure
Techniques and Principles
Subcutaneous Closure and Skin
Incisional Dressing
Recovery Stall
Abdominal Bandages
Postoperative Care
Healing of the Equine Linea Alba
Special Circumstances
Secondary Closure

Intensive Care and Postoperative Care
Monitoring Treatment for Abdominal Disease Tim S. Mair and Thomas J. Divers
Frequency of Examinations
Physical Examinations
Monitoring Clinical Pathology Parameters
Postoperative Complications Christopher J. Proudman
Postoperative Colic
Postoperative Ileus (POI)
Jugular Thrombosis and Thrombophlebitis
Incisional Infection
Incisional Hernia Formation

Specific Diseases
Diseases of the Stomach Michael J. Murray
Gastric Ulcer Syndromes
Gastric Impaction
Gastric Dilation
Liver Diseases In Foals Tim S. Mair and Thomas J. Divers
Portosystemic Shunts
Tyzzer’s Disease
Equine Herpes Virus 1 Hepatitis
Liver Failure in Foals after Neonatal Isoerythrolysis
Umbilical Vein Abscess Affecting the Liver
Portal Vein Thrombosis
Hyperammonemia of Morgan Foals
Bile Duct Obstruction
Toxic Hepatopathy
Diseases Of The Small Intestine David E. Freeman
Strangulating Obstruction
Nonstrangualting Obstruction
Inflammatory and Infiltrative Diseases
Diseases of the Cecum; Cecocecal and cecocolic intussusception James N. Moore and Joanne Hardy
Cecal Tympany
Cecal Impaction
Cecocecal and Cecocolic Intussusception
Specific diseases of the large colon Joanne Hardy
Large-Colon Tympany
Large Colon Impaction
Sand Impaction
Large-Colon Displacement
Other Simple Obstructions of the Large Colon
Large-Colon Torsion/Volvulus
Right Dorsal Colitis
Mural Infarction (Thromboembolic Colic)
Other Strangulating Lesions of the Large Colon
Disorders of the Small Colon John F. Peroni
Surgical Considerations Affected by Anatomic Features of the Small Colon
Obstructive Lesions
Vascular and Strangulating Lesions
Vascular and strangulating lesions Peter C. Rakestraw
Etiology and Prevention
Location and Classification of Rectal Tears
Clinical Signs and Diagnosis
Emergency Management
Medical Management
Surgical Management
Temporary Indwelling Rectal Liner
Loop Colostomy
Primary Repair
Nonvisual Direct Suturing Per Rectum
Ventral Midline Exposure and Antimesenteric Enterotomy for Suture Repair
Prognosis and Recommendations
Colic and Pregnancy Elizabeth M. Santschi
Colic during Pregnancy
Colic in the Peripartum Period
Colic From Alternative Systems – “False Colics” Tim S. Mair
Pain Associated with the Female Reproductive Tract
Pain Associated with the Male Reproductive Tract
Pain Associated with the Urinary Tract
Liver Diseases
The Pancreas
The Spleen
Pain Associated with the Respiratory Tract
Pain Associated with Cardiovascular Disease
Pain Associated with the Musculoskeletal System
Abdominal Injuries John F. Peroni
Diagnostic Approach
Laminitis Associated with Acute Abdominal Disease James K. Belknap and Andrew H. Parks
Clinical Presentation

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