Climate, Ticks and Disease

By Pat Nuttall

Climate, Ticks and Disease PDF book brings together expert opinions from scientists to consider the evidence for climate change and its impacts on ticks and tick-borne infections, and provide predictions for the future. It considers what is meant by “climate change,” how relevant climate models are to ecosystems, and predictions for changes in climate at global, regional, and local scales relevant for ticks and tick-borne infections. It examines changes to tick distribution and the evidence that climate change is responsible. The effect of climate on the physiology and metabolism of ticks, including potentially critical impacts on the tick microbiome is stressed. Given that the notoriety of ticks derives from pathogens they transmit, do changes in climate affect vector capacity? Ticks transmit a remarkable range of micro- and macro-parasites many of which are pathogens of humans and domesticated animals. The intimacy between tick-borne agent and tick vector means that any impacts of climate on a tick vector will impact tick-borne pathogens. Most obviously, such impacts will be apparent as changes in disease incidence and prevalence. The evidence that climate change is affecting diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens is considered, along with the potential to make robust predictions of future events.

Table of Contents

Section 1: Climate
Section 1.1: Climate and the tick ecosystem
eo1: Future climate of Africa
eo2: Vegetation-climate interactions: into the tick zone
Section 1.2: Modelling climate change impacts
eo3: Climate change and Lyme disease
eo4: How to Model the Impact of Climate Change on Vector-Borne Diseases?
eo5: Challenges of Modelling and Projecting Tick Distributions
eo6: Considerations for predicting climate change implications on future spatial distribution ranges of ticks
Section 1.3 Synopsis: Climate
Section 2: Ticks
Section 2.1: Climate impacts on tick physiology
eo7: Can the impact of climate change on the tick microbiome bring a new epidemiological landscape to tick-borne diseases?
eo8: Climate influence on tick neurobiology
eo9: The impact of climate change on tick host-seeking behaviour
eo10: Expected transitions in ticks and their heritable endosymbionts under environmental changes
eo11: Drought and tick dynamics during climate change
eo12: Climate influences on reproduction and immunity in the soft tick, Ornithodoros moubata
eo13: Climate change and ticks: measuring impacts
Section 2.2: Climate impacts on tick populations
eo14: Scandinavia and ticks in a changing climate
eo15: Birds, ticks and climate change
eo16: How tick vectors are coping with global warming
eo17: Possible direct and human-mediated impact of climate change on tick populations in Turkey
eo18: Climate change alone cannot explain altered tick distribution across Europe: a spotlight on endemic and invasive tick species
eo19: Climate and management effects on tick–game animal dynamics
eo20: Climate-driven livestock management shifts and tick populations
eo21: Potential impacts of climate change on medically important tick species in North America
Section 2.3: Climate impacts on tick species
eo22: Climate change and tick evolution: lessons from the past
Chapter 23: Amblyomma ticks and future climates
Chapter 24: Climate impacts on Dermacentor reticulatus tick population dynamics and range
Chapter 25: Changes expected in Ixodes ricinus temporal and spatial distribution in Europe
Chapter 26: Range expansion of Ixodes scapularis in the USA
Chapter 27: Distribution, seasonal occurrence, and biological characteristics of Haemaphysalis longicornis, a vector of bovine piroplasmosis in Japan
Chapter 28: Climate and vector potential of medically important North American ticks
Chapter 29: The impact of climate change on the biology of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus: current knowledge and gaps to be filled
Section 2.4: Climate impacts on vector capacity
Chapter 30: Climate impacts on the vector capacity of tropical and temperate populations of the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato
Chapter 31: Argasidae: distribution and vectorial capacity in a changing global environment
Chapter 32: Effects of climate change on babesiosis vectors
Section 2.5: Synopsis: Ticks
Section 3: Disease
Section 3.1: Vector–host–pathogen triangle
Chapter 33: Conflict and cooperation in tick–host–pathogen interactions contribute to increased tick fitness and survival
Chapter 34: Climate, ticks, and pathogens: gaps and caveats
Chapter 35: Climate and prediction of tick-borne diseases facing the complexity of the pathogen–tick–host triad at northern latitudes
Chapter 36: Is the clock ‘ticking’ for climate change?
Chapter 37: Climate instability and emerging tick-borne disease
Chapter 38: Co-infections of ticks
Chapter 39: Impact of climate change on co-feeding transmission
Chapter 40: Human behaviour trumps entomological risk
Chapter 41: It’s all in the timing: effect of tick phenology on pathogen transmission dynamics
Chapter 42: Anaplasma species’ novel tick–host–pathogen relationships and effects of climate change
Chapter 43: Zoonotic potential in the genera Anaplasma and Ehrlichia
Chapter 44: Tick vectors, tick-borne diseases and climate change
Chapter 45: Climate and other global factors at the zoonotic interface in America: influence on diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens
Chapter 46: Microclimatic conditions and RNA viruses in ticks
Section 3.2: Vector-borne infections of humans
Chapter 47: Climate, ticks and tick-borne encephalitis in Central Europe
Chapter 48: Tick-borne viral haemorrhagic fever infections
Chapter 49: Climate impact on Lyme borreliosis and its causative agents
Chapter 50: Climate change and tick-borne encephalitis in the Greater Alpine Region
Chapter 51: The expansion of Japanese spotted fever and the complex group of spotted fever group rickettsia in Japan
Chapter 52: Spatiotemporal and demographic patterns of transmission of Kyasanur Forest Disease virus in India
Chapter 53: Argasid ticks, relapsing fever and a changing climate
Chapter 54: The potential effects of climate change on Lyme borreliosis in East-Central Europe
Chapter 55: Epidemiology of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome in China
Chapter 56: Climate change and debilitating symptom complexes attributed to ticks in Australia
Chapter 57: Effect of climate change on mosquito-borne pathogens
Section 3.3: Vector-borne infections of domesticated animals
Chapter 58: Ornithodoros tick vectors and African swine fever virus
Chapter 59: Tick-borne diseases of livestock in the UK
Chapter 60: Impact of climate change on tick-borne diseases of livestock in Pakistan – looking ahead
Chapter 61: The emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals in Australia
Section 3.4: Vector-borne infections in different regions
Chapter 62: Tick-borne infections in Central Europe
Chapter 63: Impact of climate change on ticks and tick-borne infections in Russia
Chapter 64: Is climate change affecting ticks and tick-borne diseases in Taiwan?
Chapter 65: Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in the Caribbean region in the context of climate change
Chapter 66: The strange case of tick-borne viruses in Turkey
Chapter 67: Melting, melting pot – climate change and its impact on ticks and tick-borne pathogens in the Arctic
Chapter 68: Ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Middle East
Chapter 69: The emergence of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the United States
Chapter 70: Role of climate and other factors in determining the dynamics of tick and tick-transmitted pathogen populations and distribution in western, central, and eastern Africa
Chapter 71: Tick-borne pathogens in China
Chapter 72: Tick-borne rickettsioses in Africa
Chapter 73: Climate and the emergence of tick-borne disease in Canada
Chapter 74: Climate change impacts on Ixodes ricinus in Scotland and implications for Lyme disease risk
Chapter 75: Possible impact of climate and environmental change on ticks and tick-borne disease in England
Chapter 76: Climate change, ticks and tick-borne pathogens in northern Europe
Chapter 77: Tick and tick-borne disease circulation in a changing marine ecosystem
Section 3.5: Synopsis: Disease
Section 4: Final synopsis and future predictions

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