An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology PDF

By Mikko Nikinmaa

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology PDF is an introductory reference for all aspects of toxicology pertaining to aquatic environments. As water sources diminish, the need to understand the effects that contaminants may have on aquatic organisms and ecosystems increases in importance. This book will provide you with a solid understanding of aquatic toxicology, its past, its cutting-edge present and its likely future.

An Introduction to Aquatic Toxicology will introduce you to the global issue of aquatic contamination, detailing the major sources of contamination, from where they originate, and their effects on aquatic organisms and their environment. State-of-the-art toxicological topics covered include nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, bioinformatics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, as well as water management and the toxicological effects of major environmental issues such as algal blooms, climate change and ocean acidification.

This book is intended for anyone who wants to know more about the impact of toxicants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, or to keep up to date with recent and future developments in the field.

  • Provides with the latest perspectives on the impacts of toxicants on aquatic environments, such as nanotoxicology, toxicogenomics, ocean acidification and eutrophication
  • Offers a complete overview, beginning with the origins of aquatic toxicology and concluding with potential future challenges
  • Includes guidance on testing methods and a glossary of aquatic toxicology terms
Table of Contents
  • Chapter 1. Introduction: What is Aquatic Toxicology?
    • 1.1. The History of Aquatic Toxicology
    • 1.2. The Main Present and Future Challenges
    • 1.3. What is Measured

    Chapter 2. What Causes Aquatic Contamination?

    • 2.1. Introduction
    • 2.2. Metals, Metalloids, and Organometallic Compounds
    • 2.3. Other Inorganic Compounds, Including Factors Causing Eutrophication
    • 2.4. Organic Compounds
    • 2.5. Nanomaterials
    • 2.6. Radiation
    • 2.7. Genetic Modification

    Chapter 3. Principles of Water Purification

    • 3.1. Principles of wastewater treatment
    • 3.2. Disinfection Steps for Generating Household Water
    • 3.3. Sludge Treatment

    Chapter 4. Sources and Transport of Chemicals in Aquatic Systems

    • 4.1. The Major Sources of Pollutants
    • 4.2. Transport of Pollutants in the Environment

    Chapter 5. The Most Important Experimental Designs and Organisms in Aquatic Toxicology

    • 5.1. Model Organisms Used
    • 5.2. Micro- and Mesocosms
    • 5.3. Ecosystem Manipulations
    • 5.4. Biomonitoring

    Chapter 6. Factors Affecting the Bioavailability of Chemicals

    • 6.1. Introduction
    • 6.2. Pharmacological Bioavailability
    • 6.3. Environmental Bioavailability

    Chapter 7. Chemical Uptake by Organisms

    • 7.1. Introduction
    • 7.2. The Uptake of Ionic (Hydrophilic) Compounds
    • 7.3. The Uptake of Lipophilic Compounds

    Chapter 8. Chemical Distribution in Organisms

    • 8.1. Introduction: Distribution of Chemicals in Organisms
    • 8.2. Storage Sites of Chemicals in Organisms
    • 8.3. Cellular Distribution of Chemicals

    Chapter 9. Detoxification

    • 9.1. Biotransformation of Organic Compounds
    • 9.2. Detoxification by Forming Non-Harmful Complexes
    • 9.3. Detoxification by Compartmentalization

    Chapter 10. Excretion of Compounds from Organisms

    • 10.1. Introduction
    • 10.2. Cellular Excretion
    • 10.3. Excretion from Gills
    • 10.4. Excretion from the Kidney and Other Excretory Organs
    • 10.5. Excretion in Bile Via the Intestine
    • 10.6. Excretion From Multicellular Plants (Including Algae)

    Chapter 11. Effects on Organisms

    • 11.1. ’Omics in Aquatic Toxicology—Ecotoxicogenomics
    • 11.2. Genotoxicity
    • 11.3. Oxidative Stress
    • 11.4. Effects on Reproduction
    • 11.5. Neurotoxicity
    • 11.6. Effects on Energy Metabolism
    • 11.7. Membrane Effects
    • 11.8. Apoptosis and Necrosis
    • 11.9. Immunotoxicology
    • 11.10. Effects on Development
    • 11.11. Teratogenesis and Carcinogenesis
    • 11.12. Behavioral Effects

    Chapter 12. Bioindicators and Biomarkers

    • 12.1. Bioindicators
    • 12.2. Biomarkers

    Chapter 13. Interactions between Chemicals

    • 13.1. Lack of Interacting Effects (Additive Toxicity)
    • 13.2. Agonism (potentiation, synergism)
    • 13.3. Antagonism
    • 13.4. Has Potentiation or Inhibition of Toxicity by Chemical Interactions been Demonstrated in Natural Environments?

    Chapter 14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity

    • 14.1. Introduction
    • 14.2. Differentiating Between General Stress Responses and Specific Acute Responses to Pollutants
    • 14.3. Time Courses of Toxicant Responses
    • 14.4. What Signifies a Chronic Toxicant Response?

    Chapter 15. Interactions Between Natural Environmental Factors and Toxicity

    • 15.1. Temperature
    • 15.2. Oxygen
    • 15.3. Salinity
    • 15.4. Other Abiotic Stresses
    • 15.5. Competition and Predation

    Chapter 16. Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Populations

    • 16.1. Introduction
    • 16.2. Epidemiology
    • 16.3. Demographic Effects
    • 16.4. Population Genetics

    Chapter 17. Effects of Chemicals on Aquatic Communities and Ecosystems

    • 17.1. Introduction
    • 17.2. Community Ecotoxicology
    • 17.3. Ecosystem Ecotoxicology

    Chapter 18. Modeling Toxicity

    • 18.1. Introduction
    • 18.2. Risk Assessment
    • 18.3. Models with Lethality as an End Point
    • 18.4. Toxicokinetic Modeling
    • 18.5. QSAR
    • 18.6. Modeling The Properties of Water Affecting Toxicity (of Metals)

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