Natural Feed Additives Used in the Poultry Industry

Natural Feed Additives Used in the Poultry Industry addresses recent information on the use of different natural feed additives in poultry nutrition. Chapters in the book focus on the growth, production, reproduction and health of poultry.

  • 15 chapters contributed by more than 30 experts and scientists involved in animal and poultry nutrition, physiology, toxicology, pharmacology, and pathology
  • Chapters highlight the significance of a variety of herbal plant extracts and derivatives, cold pressed and essential oils, fruits by-products, immunomodulators, organic acids, probiotics, nanoparticles and their role in poultry industry instead of the growth promoter antibiotics.
  • Provides details about the use of antibiotic as growth promoters in poultry and the development of bacterial resistance.
  • Provides a holistic approach on how natural feed additives can provide an efficient solution to animal health,
  • Covers the main categories of poultry, including broiler chickens, laying hens, quails, geese, ducks, and turkey.
  • References in each chapter for further reading

This handbook represents an up-to-date review of the existing knowledge on natural feed additives, both in vitro and in vivo and the basis for future research. The text is useful to students of poultry sciences, nutritionists, scientists, veterinarians, pharmacologists, poultry breeders, and animal husbandry extension workers.

Table of Contents

FOREWORD . i
PREFACE . ii
LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS  iii
CHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF NATURAL FEED ADDITIVE ALTERNATIVES TO AGPS 1
CHAPTER 2 ANTIBIOTICS AS GROWTH PROMOTERS IN POULTRY FEEDING ….. 3
INTRODUCTION … 4
TYPES AND PROPERTIES OF ANTIBIOTICS …. 5
USES OF ANTIBIOTICS IN ANIMALS AND POULTRY …….. 7
ANTIBIOTICS AS GROWTH PROMOTERS ….. 8
MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIBIOTIC GROWTH PROMOTERS ……. 8
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY OF ANTIBIOTICS USED IN POULTRY
PRODUCTION … 10
CAUSES OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESIDUES IN TISSUES OF POULTRY ….. 10
POSSIBLE HEALTH RISKS RELATED TO ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES … 11
ALLERGY OR HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS ……… 11
DISRUPTION OF NORMAL INTESTINAL MICROBIOTA …… 11
DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE … 12
OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS ………. 13
IMPACT OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESIDUES ON ENVIRONMENT AND SOIL
MICROBES ……………….. 13
TECHNIQUES FOR SCREENING OF ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN EDIBLE POULTRY
TISSUES ………. 16
RECOMMENDATIONS AND MEASURES FOR CONTROL AND PREVENTION OF
ANTIBIOTIC RESIDUES IN POULTRY TISSUES …….. 19
CONCLUSIONS ……… 20
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION .. 21
CONFLICT OF INTEREST …. 21
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……… 21
REFERENCES ……. 21
CHAPTER 3 THE ROLE OF GARLIC AND ROSEMARY HERBS IN POULTRY
NUTRITION 34
INTRODUCTION … 35
GARLIC AND ROSEMARY CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE … 37
MECHANISM OF ACTION ……….. 37
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF GARLIC AND ROSEMARY HERBS … 38
Growth Enhancer …………… 38
Immunomodulator ……….. 40
Blood Biochemistry …….. 41
Liver and Kidney Functions as Affected by Garlic and Rosemary … 42
Hypocholesterolemic Effect …… 42
Antioxidant Enzyme Effect ………. 44
CONCLUSION ……… 45

CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ….. 45
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ….. 45
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……… 45
REFERENCES …….. 45
CHAPTER 4 NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES IN POULTRY FEED 56
INTRODUCTION …………. 56
MORPHOLOGY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION .. 57
PHARMACEUTICAL ACTIVITIES OF NIGELLA SATIVA …………… 58
Antioxidant Effects ……………. 58
Antimicrobial Activity …….. 60
Immunomodulatory Effect …………. 60
Anti-Cancerous Effects ………. 61
Nigella Sativa Effect on Poultry Performance ……. 61
CONCLUDING REMARKS ….. 62
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ….. 62
CONFLICT OF INTEREST …… 62
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …… 62
REFERENCES …….. 63
CHAPTER 5 BENEFICIAL IMPACTS OF LICORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA) HERB
TO PROMOTE POULTRY HEALTH AND PRODUCTION …….. 67
INTRODUCTION … 68
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE .. 69
BENEFICIAL HEALTH ROLE OF LICORICE ……….. 71
HEPATOPROTECTIVE, ANTI-MALIGNANT AND DETOXIFYING ACTIVITIES ….. 73
ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES ….. 74
IMMUNOMODULATOR AND ANTIVIRAL EFFECTS ……….. 75
IMPACTS OF LICORICE ON SOME BLOOD COMPONENTS …. 77
IMPACT OF LICORICE ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE ………. 78
CONCLUDING REMARKS ……. 80
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …… 80
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ……… 80
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …… 80
REFERENCES …….. 80
CHAPTER 6 THE USEFUL APPLICATIONS OF ORIGANUM VULGARE IN POULTRY
NUTRITION …………… 91
INTRODUCTION ………. 92
SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION AND ANATOMICAL STRUCTURE … 92
Biological Activities and Beneficial Aspects in Poultry ………. 92
Enhanced Intestinal Functions, Growth Rate and Productivity …… 92
Improved Nutrient Digestibility and Nutrient Utilization … 94
Antioxidant Effect on Meat Quality …….. 96
Antimicrobial and Immunomodulation Effects …. 97
Effect on Hematology and Biochemical Parameters .. 99

CONCLUDING REMARKS ……….. 100
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ………. 101
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ………. 101
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……….. 101
REFERENCES ……. 101
CHAPTER 7 IMPORTANCE OF QUINOA (CHENOPODIUM QUINOA) IN POULTRY
NUTRITION …….. 106
INTRODUCTION …… 107
NUTRITIONAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF THE QUINOA PLANT 108
Global Various Regions for Quinoa Cultivation ….. 110
Traditional Use of Quinoa Grains …….. 111
BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND FUNCTIONAL APPLICATIONS OF QUINOA ……… 111
Anti-Oxidants and Immunomodulatory Effects …. 111
Anti-Inflammatory Effects …. 112
Antihypertensive and Hypocholesterolemic Effects …………… 112
Prebiotic Effects ………. 113
Beneficial Uses of Quinoa in Poultry ……………… 113
CONCLUSIONS ………… 114
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …….. 115
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ………. 115
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………….. 115
REFERENCES …. 115
CHAPTER 8 TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA) AS A USEFUL FEED SUPPLEMENT IN
POULTRY …………… 120
INTRODUCTION ………… 121
TURMERIC ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS …………… 122
THE BENEFICIAL APPLICATIONS OF TURMERIC IN POULTRY PRODUCTION ….. 123
Immunostimulatory Role of Turmeric ……………… 124
Anti-Inflammatory Effect ……………………… 125
PREVENTING INFECTIOUS DISEASES …………………. 126
Antibacterial Activity …………………………. 126
Antifungal Activity …………….. 127
Antiviral and Parasitic Infections ……. 128
ASPECTS OF USING TURMERIC IN POULTRY PRODUCTION …… 129
Broiler Performance ……… 129
Laying Hen Performance ……. 130
Carcass Traits …………………… 130
CONCLUDING REMARKS ………………. 130
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ……………… 131
CONFLICT OF INTEREST …………… 131
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………. 131
REFERENCES ……. 131

DESCRIPTION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA …………. 177
USES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ……………. 178
PROSPECTIVE TOXICITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ……. 180
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF …….. 181
PHYTOCHEMICALS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF ………. 181
ANTIOXIDANTS IN MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF ……………. 182
INCLUSION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF IN POULTRY DIETS …………. 182
INTRODUCTION …….. 140
DESCRIPTION OF CHIA SEED …………… 141
PHYTOCHEMICALS IN CHIA SEED ………….. 141
NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF CHIA SEED ……….. 142
Protein and Amino Acid Contents ……………. 143
The Fiber Content of Chia Seed ………. 144
MINERALS CONTENT OF CHIA SEED ……… 144
FATTY ACID COMPOSITION CONTENT OF CHIA SEED ……. 145
THERAPEUTIC PERSPECTIVES OF CHIA SEED … 145
Antioxidant Activity ……….. 145
EFFECT OF CHIA ON IMMUNE SYSTEM ……. 146
CARDIO-PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CHIA SEED ……. 146
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES ……….. 146
USES OF CHIA SEED IN POULTRY RESEARCH ….. 146
CONCLUSION ……… 148
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ……. 148
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ………… 148
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……….. 148
REFERENCES …………… 148

CHAPTER 9 NUTRITIONAL AND PROMISING THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF CHIA
SEED AS A FEED ADDITIVE IN POULTRY ………………………………………………….. 139
Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Sajjad Khan, Muhammad Asif Arain, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack,
Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany

CONCLUSION …. 185
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …………… 185
CONFLICT OF INTEREST …………. 185
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ….. 185
REFERENCES ………….. 185

CHAPTER 10 CASSIA FISTULA: POTENTIAL HEALTH-PROMOTING CANDIDATE FOR
LIVESTOCK AND POULTRY ……… 154
INTRODUCTION ………………… 155
PLANT BIOGRAPHY ……… 156
APPLICATION IN HERBAL MEDICINE ………….. 156
APPLICATIONS IN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE ………… 156
PHYTOCHEMISTRY ……. 158
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES …… 158
CASSIA FISTULA USE IN ANIMALS AND POULTRY ……. 166
CONCLUSION ……… 167
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …… 167
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ….. 167
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ……. 168
REFERENCES ……. 168
CHAPTER 11 MORINGA (MORINGA OLEIFERA) AND ITS ROLE IN POULTRY
NUTRITION ……… 176
INTRODUCTION …………… 177
Zohaib A. Bhutto, Muhammad A. Arain, Mahmoud Alagawany, Muhammad Umar,
Ilahi Bakhash Marghazani, Nasrullah, Feroza Soomro, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack,
Muhammad Saeed, Mayada R. Farag, Ahmed Noreldin and Kuldeep Dhama
Ahmed Noreldin, Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Shaaban S. Elnesr, Mayada R. Farag,
Hamada A. M. Elwan and Mahmoud Alagawany
CHAPTER 12 GREEN TEA (CAMELLIA SINENSIS) AND ITS BENEFICIAL ROLE IN
POULTRY NUTRITION …………. 191
INTRODUCTION ….. 192
HEALTH BENEFITS ON POULTRY SPECIES …… 193
Broilers Chickens ………………………. 193
Laying Hens ………… 195
CONCLUSION ……………………….. 196
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …………… 196
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ……………… 196
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………………. 196
REFERENCES ……………………….. 196
CHAPTER 13 BENEFICIAL IMPACTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS ON POULTRY HEALTH
AND PRODUCTION …………. 201
INTRODUCTION …………………. 202
SOME TYPES OF ESSENTIAL OILS ………. 203
THYMOL ………………. 203
Sources of Thymol …….203
CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ………….. 203
BENEFICIAL ASPECTS OF THYMOL …………… 204
Immunomodulatory Effect ……… 204
Scavenging Effect ……… 205
Antimicrobial Activity ……… 205
Antiviral Activity …… 206
RESVERATROL …….. 206
Natural Sources ………. 206
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND MECHANISMS ……….. 206
METABOLISM, BIOSYNTHESIS, AND BIOAVAILABILITY ………. 207
Antioxidant Activity and Role in Poultry Nutrition ……… 208
CARVACROL …….. 209
Carvacrol Origin ………. 209
Carvacrol’s Chemical Formula and Properties …… 210
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES’ MECHANISMS …. 210
METABOLISM AND EXCRETION … 210
BENEFICIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CARVACROL ……………… 211
Growth Performance and Nutrients Bioavailability …….. 211
Antiviral Activity ……………………………….. 213
Antimicrobial Activity ……………………………….. 213
Cymophenol Scavenging Activity ………………. 213
Immunomodulatory Effect …………… 214
Anti-Tumor Effects ….. 214
Hepatoprotective Effect ………. 214
Mahmoud Alagawany, Mohammad Mehedi Hasan Khan, Rashed Chowdhury,
Mayada R. Farag, Rana M. Bilal and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack
Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mohamed T. El-saadony, Nahed Yehia, Asmaa F. Khafaga,
Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany

ANTI-HYPERNOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES ……………… 214
Anti-Obesity Effect ……………… 215
CONCLUDING REMARKS ……………. 215
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ……….. 215
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ….. 215
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………… 216
REFERENCES  216
CHAPTER 14 ORGANIC ACIDS AS ECO-FRIENDLY GROWTH PROMOTERS IN
POULTRY FEED …………… 225
INTRODUCTION ….. 226
DEFINITION AND CHEMICAL STRUCTURE OF ORGANIC ACIDS [OAS] …… 227
Action Mechanisms of Dietary OAs ….. 227
Antimicrobial Activity of OAs ………… 227
Impact of OAs on The pH of The GIT ………. 229
Impact of OAs on Immunity ……………. 229
Impact of Different Sources of OAs on Poultry Performance ……………… 230
CONCLUSION ………………….. 234
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ………… 234
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ……………… 235
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………… 235
REFERENCES ……………………. 235
CHAPTER 15 BENEFICIAL IMPACTS OF PROBIOTICS ON POULTRY NUTRITION ……. 240
INTRODUCTION ……… 241
THE PROBIOTIC APPROACH IN POULTRY NUTRITION .. 243
The Active Probiotic Strains Used Within Poultry Feeds ….. 244
Mechanisms of Beneficial Probiotic in Poultry ….. 245
The Applications of Probiotics in Poultry Feeds …. 246
Enhancing Growth Performance and Production ……… 247
Health and Immunity ……………… 249
Countering Infectious Pathogens …………….. 250
CONCLUDING REMARKS …. 252
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION …. 252
CONFLICT OF INTEREST ……. 253
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ………… 253
REFERENCES ……. 253
CHAPTER 16 NUTRITIONAL APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN POULTRY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO MINERALS ……. 262
INTRODUCTION …………… 262
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON POULTRY PERFORMANCE ……. 263
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS …………. 265
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON POULTRY ANTIOXIDANT STATUS ….. 266
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON POULTRY GENE EXPRESSION .. 267
Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Elwy A. Ashour, Muhammad Arif, Maria Tabassum Chaudhry,
Mohamed Emam, Asmaa F. Khafaga, Ayman E. Taha, Dairon Más, Kuldeep Dhama,
Mayada R. Farag and Mahmoud Alagawany
Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack, Mohammed A. E. Naiel, Samar S. Negm, Asmaa F. Khafaga,
Mayada R. Farag, Shaaban S. Elnesr and Mahmoud Alagawany
Mahmoud Alagawany, Sameh A. Abdelnour, Mayada R. Farag, Shaaban S. Elnesr,
Mohamed S. El-Kholy and Mohamed E. Abd El-Hack

EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON IMMUNE RESPONSES . 267
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON SEMEN CRITERIA ….. 268
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON POULTRY MICROBIOTA ……… 268
EFFECTS OF NANO-SELENIUM ON CARCASS TRAITS … 268
GENERAL CONCLUSION ……… 269
EFFECTS OF NANO-ZINC ON POULTRY PERFORMANCE …. 269
EFFECTS OF NANO-ZINC ON INTESTINAL MORPHOLOGY …….. 272
EFFECTS OF NANO-ZINC ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS …….. 272
EFFECTS OF NANO-ZINC ON IMMUNITY RESPONSES …………… 273
EFFECTS OF NANO-COPPER ON POULTRY PERFORMANCE …………. 273
EFFECTS OF NANO-COPPER ON BLOOD CONSTITUENTS …….. 274
EFFECTS OF NANO-COPPER ON IMMUNE RESPONSES . 276
EFFECTS OF NANO-COPPER ON POULTRY MICROBIOTA ….. 277
EFFECTS OF NANO-COPPER ON GENE EXPRESSION ……. 277
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ….. 277
CONSENT FOR PUBLICATION ………. 278
CONFLICT OF INTEREST …………. 278
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …… 278
REFERENCES ……….. 278
SUBJECT INDEX …… 285

This Book is Available For Premium Members Only

Become a Premium Member Now