Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture

The global trade of aquatic organisms for home and public aquariums, along with associated equipment and accessories, has become a multi-billion dollar industry. Aquaculture of marine ornamental species, still in its infancy, is recognized as a viable alternative to wild collection as it can supplement or replace the supply of wild caught specimens and potentially help recover natural populations through restocking.

This book collects into a single work the most up-to-date information currently available on the aquaculture of marine ornamental species. It includes the contributions of more than 50 leading scientists and experts on different topics relevant for the aquaculture of the most emblematic groups of organisms traded for reef aquariums. From clownfish, to angelfish, tangs and seahorses, as well as corals, anemones, shrimps, giant clams and several other reef organisms, all issues related with the husbandry, breeding, and trade are addressed, with explanatory schemes and illustrations being used to help in understanding the most complex topics addressed.

Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture is a key reference for scientists and academics in research institutes and universities, public and private aquaria, as well as for hobbyists. Entrepreneurs will also find this book an important resource, as the culture of marine ornamental species is analyzed from a business oriented perspective, highlighting the risks and opportunities of commercial scale aquaculture of marine ornamentals.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xxv

Foreword xxxi

Part I Overview of Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture 1

1 The Marine Ornamental Species Trade 3
Matthew R. Palmtag

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 History 4

1.3 Economics of Trade 5

1.4 Species of Trade 5

1.5 Organization of Trade 6

1.6 Environmental Impact 7

1.7 Marine Ornamentals Aquaculture 9

1.8 Conclusions 12

Acknowledgements 12

References 12

2 The Need for Cultured Specimens 15
Ricardo Calado

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Should All Marine Ornamental Species be Cultured? 16

2.3 Highly Demanded Marine Ornamental Species Cultured in Captivity 18

2.4 Conclusions 20

References 21

3 Life Cycles in Marine Ornamental Species – Fishes as a Case Study 23
Ike Olivotto, Ming‐Yih Leu and Mercedes Blázquez

3.1 Introduction 23

3.2 Patterns of Sexuality in Fish 24

3.3 Sex Determination and Sex Differentiation in Fish 28

3.4 Molecular Markers of Sex Differentiation 29

3.5 Transcriptomic Studies on Fish Sex Differentiation 29

3.6 Demersal Spawners 30

3.7 Pelagic Spawners 34

3.8 Conclusions 38

Acknowledgements 39

References 39

4 Early Culture Trials and an Overview on U.S. Marine Ornamental Species Trade 51
Andrew L. Rhyne, Michael F. Tlusty and Joseph T. Szczebak

4.1 Introduction 51

4.2 Import Data and the Marine Aquarium Trade 52

4.3 Aquaculture for the Marine Aquarium Trade: Bottlenecks and Opportunities 58

4.4 Constraints and Opportunities for the Commercial Production of Marine Aquarium Species 59

4.5 Risks and Benefits of Aquaculture Production 63

4.6 Conclusions 66

Acknowledgements 66

References 66

Part II Facilities, Culture Systems and Other Specific Requirements 71

5 Location 75
Ricardo Calado

5.1 Introduction 75

5.2 In Situ Culture 76

5.3 Ex Situ Culture 77

5.4 Licensing and Other Legal Issues 77

5.5 Conclusions 78

References 78

6 Broodstock Systems 81
Rui J.m. Rocha and Maria Teresa Dinis

6.1 Introduction 81

6.2 Broodstock Management and Reproduction 82

6.3 Systems Design and Planning 82

6.4 Conclusions 96

Acknowledgements 97

References 97

7 Larviculture Systems 101
Ike Olivotto and Miquel Planas Oliver

7.1 Introduction 101

7.2 Microcosms 102

7.3 Mesocosms 105

7.4 Conclusions 108

Acknowledgements 109

References 109

8 Live Prey Production Systems 111
Miquel Planas Oliver, Ike Olivotto and Claudia Turchi

8.1 Introduction 111

8.2 Microalgae 112

8.3 Rotifers 113

8.4 Artemia 115

8.5 Copepods 118

8.6 Other Prey 121

8.7 Conclusions 122

Acknowledgements 122

References 122

9 Larval Diets and Nutrition 125
Ike Olivotto, Miquel Planas Oliver and Claudia Turchi

9.1 Larval Nutritional Requirements 125

9.2 Microalgae 127

9.3 Rotifers, Artemia and Ciliates 129

9.4 Copepods 131

9.5 Inert Diets (Dry Food and Preserved Copepods) 133

9.6 Conclusions 134

References 134

10 Growout and Broodstock Nutrition 139
Steven R. Craig, Todd R. Gardner and Oliana Carnevali

10.1 Introduction 139

10.2 Nutritional Components 140

10.3 Broodstock Nutrition 145

10.4 Probiotics 149

10.5 Conclusions 152

References 153

11 Considerations for Developing a Marine Ornamental Hatchery 159
Avier J. Montalvo

11.1 Introduction 159

11.2 Hatchery Location 160

11.3 Facility Layout 160

11.4 Water Sources 160

11.5 Electricity 162

11.6 Lighting 163

11.7 Tanks and Aquariums 163

11.8 Diet and Nutrition 167

11.9 Quarantine 168

11.10 Filtration 169

11.11 Market Assessment 170

11.12 Quality Control 171

11.13 Other Considerations 171

11.14 Conclusions 172

Acknowledgements 172

References 172

Part III Marine Ornamental Fishes Aquaculture 175

12 Clownfish 177
Ike Olivotto and Benjamin Geffroy

12.1 Introduction 177

12.2 Social Structure 179

12.3 Sex Reversal in Clownfish 180

12.4 Broodstock Nutrition 182

12.5 Broodstock Tanks and Establishing Pairs 183

12.6 Spawning 185

12.7 Hatching, Larval Tanks and First Feeding 187

12.8 Early Trials 190

12.9 Conclusions 193

Acknowledgements 194

References 194

13 Mouthbrooders – the Banggai Cardinalfish 201
Alejandro A. Vagelli

13.1 Introduction 201

13.2 The Reproductive Biology of Pterapogon kauderni 203

13.3 General Ecological Characteristics of Pterapogon kauderni 207

13.4 Captive Breeding of Pterapogon kauderni 209

13.5 Nutritional Aspects and Diseases 216

13.6 Conclusions 219

Acknowledgements 219

References 219

14 Other Demersal Spawners and Mouthbrooders 223
Marcelo Shei, Miguel Mies and Ike Olivotto

14.1 Introduction 223

14.2 Gobies (Gobiidae) 224

14.3 Blennies (Blenniidae) 228

14.4 Dottybacks (Pseudochromidae) 231

14.5 Damselfishes (Pomacentridae) 236

14.6 Other Demersal Spawning Families 240

14.7 Other Mouthbrooders 242

14.8 Conclusions 243

Acknowledgements 243

References 243

15 Large Angelfish and Other Pelagic Spawners 251
G. Joan Holt, Ming‐Yih Leu, Chatham K. Callan and Brad Erisman

15.1 Introduction 251

15.2 Serranidae 254

15.3 Lutjanidae 257

15.4 Haemulidae 258

15.5 Sciaenidae 260

15.6 Chaetodontidae 262

15.7 Pomacanthidae 263

15.8 Labridae 265

15.9 Callionymidae 268

15.10 Ephippidae 269

15.10.1 Spadefish (Chaetodipterus faber) 269

15.10.2 Orbiculate Batfish (Platax orbicularis) 269

15.10.3 Longfin Batfish (Platax teira) 269

15.11 Acanthuridae 270

15.11.1 Palette Surgeonfish (Paracanthurus hepatus) 270

15.11.2 Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens) 271

15.12 Conclusions 273

Acknowledgements 273

References 274

16 Dwarf Angelfish 279
Frank Baensch

16.1 Introduction 279

16.2 Broodstock 282

16.3 Larval Rearing 286

16.4 Juvenile Growout 293

16.5 Conclusions 295

Acknowledgements 296

References 296

17 Seahorses and Pipefish 299
Miquel Planas Oliver, Robert Burhans and Nuno Simoes

17.1 Introduction 299

17.2 Anatomy and General Biology 300

17.3 Reproduction and Mating System 301

17.4 Husbandry 303

17.5 Rearing Systems 307

17.6 Diseases 311

17.7 Rearing of Selected Seahorse Species 314

17.8 Rearing of Selected Pipefish 317

17.9 Rearing of Seadragons 320

17.10 Conclusions 322

Acknowledgements 322

References 322

18 Post‐Larval Capture and Culture of Ornamental Fishes 327
Gilles Lecaillon

18.1 Introduction 327

18.2 PCC Versus Fish Life Cycle 328

18.3 Features Determining Species Suitability to the Marine Aquarium Trade 330

18.4 Hobbyist Responsibilities 335

18.5 Pcc Experiences 339

18.6 Conclusions 342

Acknowledgements 343

References 343

19 Common Diseases in Marine Ornamental Fishes 347
Maria Letizia Fioravanti and Daniela Florio

19.1 Introduction 347

19.2 Parasitic Diseases 349

19.3 Mycotic Diseases 358

19.4 Bacterial Diseases 360

19.5 Viral Diseases 365

19.6 Conclusions 368

Acknowledgements 368

References 369

Part IV Marine Ornamental Invertebrates Aquaculture 381

20 Live Rock 385
Nuno Simões, Andrés Altamira, Marcelo Shei and Francesco Perissonotti

20.1 Introduction 385

20.2 Trade of Live Rock: a Bit of History 387

20.3 Types of Live Rock 388

20.4 Principal Recipes to Make Your Own Aquacultured Live Rock 391

20.5 Decoration Versus Filtration: Myth or Reality? 392

20.6 Problems in Use 393

20.7 Financial Issues? 394

20.8 Observations on the Differences of Live Rock 395

20.9 Conclusions 399

Acknowledgements 399

References 399

21 Cnidarians 403
Ricardo Calado

References 404

21.1 Corals 406
Miguel C. Leal, Christine Ferrier‐Pagès, Dirk Petersen and Ronald Osinga

References 429

21.2 Sea Anemones 437
Anna Scott

Acknowledgements 448

References 448

21.3 Jellyfish 457
Mike Schaadt, Chad L. Widmer and Nancy Sowinski

Acknowledgements 471

References 471

22 Decapod Crustaceans 475
Ricardo Calado

References 476

22.1 Shrimp 477
Ricardo Calado, Junda Lin, Gilles Lecaillon and Andrew L. Rhyne

References 491

22.2 Other Marine Ornamental Decapods 496
Andrew L. Rhyne, Junda Lin and Ricardo Calado

References 504

23 Molluscs 507
Ricardo Calado

References 508

23.1 Giant Clams 510
Miguel Mies, Marcello S. Scozzafave, Felipe Braga and Paulo Y.g. Sumida

Acknowledgements 529

References 529

23.2 Snails, Slugs and Cephalopods 536
Gisela Dionisio, Filipa Faleiro and Rui Rosa

Acknowledgements 554

References 554

24 Polychaetes 565
David R. Bybee and Joanna M. Murray

24.1 Introduction 565

24.2 Worms Sold in the Trade 567

24.3 An Introduction on Ornamental Polychaete Culture 567

24.4 Sexual Reproduction as a Method of Culture 568

24.5 Asexual Reproduction and Regeneration as Methods of Culture 571

24.6 Conclusions 575

Acknowledgements 576

References 576

25 Other Invertebrates and Macroalgae 581
Ricardo Calado and Martin Moe Jr.

25.1 Introduction 581

25.2 Sponges 582

25.3 Tunicates 583

25.4 Echinoderms 583

25.5 Macroalgae 589

25.6 Conclusions 590

References 591

Part V Other Issues in Marine Ornamental Species Aquaculture 595

26 Packing and Shipping 597
Joao P. Correia and Nuno V. Rodrigues

26.1 Introduction 597

26.2 Packing 598

26.3 Shipping 602

26.4 Conclusions 606

Acknowledgements 606

References 606

27 The Role of Public and Private Aquaria in the Culture and Conservation of Marine Ornamentals 609
Ricardo Calado

References 610

27.1 Public Aquaria 611
Michael F. Tlusty, Nuria Baylina, Andrew L. Rhyne, Chris Brown and Mark Smith

References 620

27.2 Interaction Between Public and Private Aquaria 623
Judy St. Leger and gary Violetta

Acknowledgements 632

References 632

28 How Nano Tanks can Foster the Demand for Bred and Cultured Marine Ornamentals 635
Christiane Schmidt

28.1 Introduction 635

28.2 The Need 637

28.3 Where we are Now 638

28.4 Challenges 639

28.5 Solutions 641

28.6 Conclusions 645

Acknowledgements 645

References 645

Part VI Future Challenges and Concluding Remarks 647

Glossary 651

Appendix 655

Index 663

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