Marine and Freshwater Toxins

Marine and Freshwater Toxins

By P. Gopalakrishnakone, Vidal Haddad Jr., Aurelia Tubaro, Euikyung Kim and William R. Kem

Marine and Freshwater Toxins Book PDF presents the structure of the main toxins of aquatic origin, their distribution, producing species and vectors, their mechanisms of action, the clinical aspects of envenomation in humans, their effects in laboratory or wild animals, their toxicokinetic properties, including the relevant treatment, detection methods and regulatory aspects for management. The work also presents the main species associated with the injuries, poisonings their toxins, mechanism of action and the clinical aspects of the envenomations by aquatic animals and discusses the actual measures utilized in the first aid and hospital treatments. Marine toxins such as palytoxins, brevetoxins, saxitoxin, ciguatoxins, okadaic acid, azaspiracid toxins, equinatoxins are also dealt with in this volume. These toxins can be lethal as well as having a complex and large molecular structure and display mechanisms by which they act very specifically on targets, receptors or on critical body proteins.

The marine and freshwater environments are the new frontiers of humanity, but the increase of economic and tourist activities provoke nasty encounters between aquatic animals and humans. The main victims are swimmers, professional and sportive fishermen, surfers and scuba divers as well as people working in related fields. The identification, knowledge and treatment of envenomations caused by venomous and poisonous animals are not adequate and the prevention of injuries still is not possible. Additionally, the immense potential of the pharmacologic effects of their toxins is not fully explored. Toxins of venomous aquatic animals can cause proteolysis, myotoxicity, hemotoxicity (mainly hemolysis), cytotoxicity and neurotoxicity. The neurotoxicity is generally associated with toxins of dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, present in poisonous and/or contaminated invertebrates and fish.

Table of Contents

Toxins from Microalgae, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteria

Toxins Produced by Marine Microorganisms: A Short Review

Saxitoxin and Other Paralytic Toxins: Toxicological Profile

Instrumental Methods for Paralytic Shellfish Toxins

Ciguatoxin and Ciguatera

Domoic Acid and Other Amnesic Toxins: Toxicological Profile

Brevetoxins: Toxicological Profile

Palytoxins: Toxicological Profile

Okadaic Acid and Other Diarrheic Toxins: Toxicological Profile

Azaspiracid Toxins: Toxicological Profile

Spirolides and Cyclic Imines: Toxicological Profile

Microcystins: Toxicological Profile

Effects of Cyanotoxins: Sea and Freshwater Toxins

Pufferfish Poisoning and Tetrodotoxin

Toxins from Invertebrates

Phylum Porifera and Cnidaria

Clinical and Therapeutic Aspects of Envenomations Caused by Sponges and Jellyfish

Phyla Molluska: The Venom Apparatus of Cone Snails

Jellyfish Venom and Toxins: A Review

Equinatoxins: A Review

Immunomodulatory Properties of Sea Cucumber Triterpene Glycosides

Toxins from Vertebrates and Miscellaneous Toxins

Toxins Produced by Marine Invertebrate and Vertebrate Animals: A Short Review

Venomous Marine Fish: Evolution of the Venoms – Chondrichthyes (Cartilaginous Fish)

Venomous Marine Fish: Osteichthyes (Bony Fish)

Venomous Freshwater Fish: Catfish and Freshwater Stingrays

Miscellaneous Marine Toxins of Medical Significance

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