Blood pressure in cats and dogs. A clinical manual

By Enrique Ynaraja Ramírez

Blood pressure in cats and dogs. A clinical manual PDF is a practical and simple manual on the methods and techniques to measure blood pressure in cats and dogs, how to interpret the results obtained, and the recommended treatments. It includes a brief review of the current official recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), with clear rules and guidelines.

Table of Contents
1. Blood pressure
Blood pressure measurement methods
Normal values
Factors influencing blood pressure
Blood pressure regulation mechanisms
Immediate regulation: rapid control mechanisms
Delayed regulation: mid‑term control mechanisms
Delayed regulation: long-term control mechanisms
2. Blood pressure measurement
Blood pressure dynamics
Anatomical locations for measuring blood pressure
Measurements at the base of the tail
Measurements on a forelimb
Measurements on a hindlimb
Blood pressure measurement protocol for clinical practice
3. Blood pressure measurement techniques
What other methods are available?
Doppler systems
Oscillometric systems
High-definition oscillometry (HDO)
Plethysmography and photoplethysmography
Which parameters are measured?
4. Arterial hypertension
Values obtained
Diseases that cause hypertension in cats and dogs
Hypertension and kidney disease
Hypertension and obesity
Hypertension and endocrine disorders
Target organ damage
The central nervous system
The heart
The eyeballs
The kidneys
The blood vessels
5. Drug treatment of hypertension
Courses of action to reduce blood pressure
Modification of cardiac output
Control over circulating volume
Antihypertensive drugs
Adrenergic receptor blockers
Calcium channel blockers
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)
Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIRAs)
Endothelin receptor antagonists
Renin inhibitors
Direct vasodilators
Centrally acting antihypertensives
Catecholamine-depleting drugs
Aldosterone antagonists
6. Hypotension
Causes of hypotension in cats and dogs
Diseases and procedures that cause hypotension
Heart failure
Diabetic coma or ketoacidosis
Direct alterations in blood vessels
7. Drug treatment of hypotension
Courses of action to increase blood pressure
Drugs for treating hypotension
Sympathomimetic drugs
Phosphodiesterase inhibitors
Other cardiac stimulants
Fluid therapy solutions

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