Aquatic Animal Nutrition, Organic Macro- and Micronutrients

Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Organic Macro- and Micronutrients PDF

By Christian E.W. Steinberg

Aquatic Animal Nutrition, Organic Macro- and Micronutrients PDF. As sequel to Aquatic Animal Nutrition – A Mechanistic Perspective from Individuals to Generations, the present treatise on organic macro- and micronutrients continues the unique cross fertilization of aquatic ecology/ecophysiology and aquaculture. This treatise considers proteins and their constituents, carbohydrates from mono- to polysaccharides, fatty acids from free acids to fat, and waxes. It becomes obvious that these organic nutrients are more than only simple fuel for the metabolism of animals; rather, their constituents have messenger and controlling function for the actual consuming individual and even for succeeding generations. This aspect will become particularly clear by putting the organisms under consideration back into their ecosystem with their interrelationships and interdependencies. Furthermore, micronutrients, such as vitamins and nucleotides as well as exogenous enzymes, are in the focus of this volume with known and still-to-be-discovered controlling physiological and biomolecular functions.

Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Organic Macro- and Micronutrients addresses se­veral gaps in nutritional research and practice. One major gap is the lack of com­mon research standards and protocols for nutritional studies so that virtually incomparable approaches have to be compared. This applies also to the studied animals, since most approaches disregard intraspecific variabilities and the existence of epimutations in farmed individuals. Furthermore, recalling the Mechanistic Perspective from Individuals to Generations, dietary benefits and deficiencies have effects on succeeding generations. In most studies, this long-term and sustainable aspect is overruled by pure short-term production aspects.

By comparing nutritional behavior and success of fishes and invertebrates, Aqua­tic Animal Nutrition points out different metabolic pathways in these animal groups and discusses how, for instance, fishes would benefit when having some successful metabolic pathway of invertebrates. Application of novel ge­ne­tic techniques will help turn this vision into reality. However, a widely missing link in the current nutritional research is epigenetics regarding transgenerational heritages of acquired morphological and physiological properties. To in­crease public acceptance, nutritional optimization of farmed animals based on this mechanism, rather than genetical engineering, appears promising.

Table of Contents

1 Aquatic Animal Nutrition: Organic Macro- and Micronutrients—‘Do Blind Men and Their Elephant Get Wet Feet?’

2 Protein Requirement—‘Only Meat Makes You Strong’

3 Utilization of Proteinaceous Nutrients—‘Becoming Strong with Meat’

4 Peptides or Amino Acids?—‘The Smaller, the Better?’

5 Amino Acid Function and Requirement—‘More than Easy Fuel’

7 The Versatile Amino Acid: Tryptophan—‘More Controlling than Fueling

8 A Bunch of Amino Acids: Phe, Tyr, Branched-Chain AAs, Ser and Thr—‘Much More than Easy Fuel’

9 Sulfur Amino Acids—‘Much More than Easy Fuel.

10 Basic Amino Acids and Prolines—‘Again: Much More than Easy Fuel’

11 Taurine—‘Controlling Rather than Fueling’

12 Nonprotein Amino Acids—‘Fuel at All?’

13 Carbohydrates with Emphasis on Glucose—‘Life’s Little Luxury’

14 Glucose Homeostasis—‘Life’s Little Luxury Balanced’

15 Glucose Intolerance—‘Life’s Real Luxury?’

16 Carbohydrate Transport—‘Life’s Useful Luxury Distributed’

18 Carbohydrate Preference and Metabolism—‘Life’s Little
Luxury Digested

19 Regulatory Potential of Carbohydrates—‘Life’s Little Luxury
Controls’

20 Oligosaccharides—‘Sweet or Healthy Promises

21 Starch—‘Gluey Promise’

22 Nonstarch Polysaccharides—‘Neither Sweet Nor Gluey—Adverse?’

23 Lipids—‘The Greasy, Unhealthy Stuff

24 Lipid Homeostasis and Lipophagy—‘The Greasy Stuff Balanced

25 Protein Sparing by Lipids—‘Learning from Wild Conspecifics

26 Fatty Acids—‘Fueling Versus Steering

27 Essential Fatty Acids—‘Fueling Versus Controlling

28 Biosynthesis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids—‘Many Can, Some Can’t’

29 LC-PUFAs in Reproduction and Behavior—‘Good Cop–Bad Cop?’

30 Trophic Transfer of PUFAs—‘Vital Ones Reach Top Predators’

31 Sterols, Phospholipids, and Wax Esters—‘Stay Healthy, Avoid Cholesterol’

32 Vitamin A—‘Does It Keep the Veterinarian Away?’

33 Vitamin B Complex—‘Do These Compounds Keep Veterinarians Away?’

34 Vitamin C—‘An Apple a Day Keeps the Veterinarian Away’

35 Vitamin D—‘Keep the Orthopedist Away!’

36 Vitamin E—‘Keep Stress Away!’

37 Vitamin K—‘Keep the Hematologist Away!’

38 Nucleotides—‘Only for Fitness Fans?’

39 Enzymes—‘Digestive Assistance from Aliens

40 Intraspecific Variability—‘The Apple May Be a PineApple’

Abbreviations

Major Microbial Disease Agents of Farmed Aquatic Animals

References

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