Equine Lameness for the Layman: Tools for Prompt Recognition, Accurate Assessment, and Proactive Management


Equine Lameness for the Layman: Tools for Prompt Recognition, Accurate Assessment, and Proactive Management

Equine Lameness For The Layman: Tools For Prompt Recognition, Accurate Assessment, And Proactive Management

By G. Robert Grisel

Equine Lameness for the Layman: Tools for Prompt Recognition, Accurate Assessment, and Proactive Management PDF. Lameness is the most common cause of poor performance in the horse. This makes management of his soundness over the long–term integral to both his general well–being and his ability to participate in recreational and competitive activities.

Unfortunately, most equine caretakers are unable to perceive abnormal movement in the horse, extending the period between the onset of a problem and its eventual treatment, and the longer an issue is allowed to persist, the greater the chance that it will progress. Many equine veterinarians also find it difficult to visually decipher lameness, which leads to lengthy, expensive, and often inaccurate diagnostic work–ups. It is with these two key audiences in mind that Dr. Bob Grisel has created a book unlike any other. With hundreds of illustrations, dozens of charts, and links to online videos of explanatory case studies, readers are given a complete course in observing, identifying, and decoding equine lameness. Dr. Grisel helps you interpret what is seen, plain and simple (no need for medical knowledge of equine anatomy and pathology). Whether first–time horse owner or seasoned professional, you are guaranteed to come away with a detailed, systematic, and comprehensive method for a happier, healthier equine partner.

Table of Contents








SECTION I Our Responsibility to the Performance Horse

1 The Responsibility of the Horse Owner in Successful Management of Equine Lameness

2 The Responsibility of the Veterinarian in Successful Management of Equine Lameness

SECTION II What Is Lameness?

3 The Definition of Lameness

4 The Art of Seeing Lameness

5 Obscure (Hidden) Lameness

Bilateral Lameness

Multifactorial Lameness

Axial Lameness

6 The Issue of Visual Subjectivity Among Observers

SECTION III Forms of Lameness

Reference Chart: Common Forms of Lameness

7 Primary versus Secondary Lameness

Common Forms of Secondary Lameness

8 Painful versus Non-Painful Lameness

9 Weight-Bearing versus Non Weight-Bearing Lameness

10 Authentic versus Artificial Lameness

The Concept of Diagonal Synchrony

11 Axial versus Peripheral Lameness

The Head and Neck

12 Consistent versus Intermittent Lameness

Reference Chart: Intrinsic Causes of Tripping in the Horse

Reference Chart: List of Equine Skeletal Myopathies

Neurologic Lameness

Shifting Lameness

Reference Chart: Visual Markers for Neurologic Disease in the Horse

Rein Lameness

Behavioral Lameness

Reference Chart: Common Causes of Poor Behavior in the Symmetrically Moving Horse

13 Unique Lameness

Reference Chart: Classification of Unique Gait Deficits

SECTION IV Pertinent Equine Anatomy

14 Terminology Relating to the Horse’s Movement

Reference Chart: Basic Classification of Equine Joints

Movement of the Limb and Foot

Movement of the Axial Anatomy

15 The Relationship Between Anatomy and Expression of Gait

Reference Chart: The Correlation Between Anatomic Function and the Nature of Associated Lameness

16 The Stay-Apparatus

The Stay-Apparatus of the Hind Limb

Reference Chart: Extrinsic Influences on the Behavior of the Hind Stay-Apparatus

Reference Chart: Classic Symptoms Associated with Mild Interference of the Hind Stay-Apparatus

The Stay-Apparatus of the Forelimb

17 Anatomic Behavior of the Lower Limb

The Flexor Apparatus

The Check Apparatus

The Suspensory Apparatus


18 Basic Axial Anatomy

Axial Bones

Axial Joints

Axial Muscles

Axial Ligaments

19 Altered Muscle Anatomy and Function

Reference Chart: Intrinsic (Muscular) Causes for Biomechanical Lameness

Fibrotic Myopathy

SECTION V The Fundamentals of Productive Observation

20 The Game Plan

Choosing the Approach

Choosing the Gait

Choosing the Venue

Reference Chart: Setting for Basic Visual Lameness Assessment

21 Rules of Effective Lameness Assessment

Basic Rules of Observation

22 Key Visible Elements of the Equine Gait

Asymmetry in Axial Movement

Asymmetry in the Quality of Stride

Asymmetry in Limb Gesturing

Asymmetry in Foot Dynamics

SECTION VI The Method of Visual Lameness Assessment

Reference Chart: Basic Lameness Evaluation Protocol

23 Identifying the Affected Areas

Identifying the Lame Limb(s)

Detecting Forelimb Lameness

Detecting Hind-Limb Lameness

Detecting Axial Lameness

Detecting Complicated Lameness

Breed Considerations

Reference Chart: Basic Gaits of the Horse

24 Determining the Nature of Lameness

Weight-Bearing Lameness

Non Weight-Bearing Lameness

Combination Lameness

Highlighting the Nature of Lameness During Assessment

25 Determining the Severity (Degree) of Lameness

Standardized Grading of Lameness

Reference Chart: American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) Grading Scale

26 Determining Extrinsic Influences on Lameness

Temporal and Thermic Variations






Form of Restraint

Reference Chart: Extrinsic Influences on the Nature of Lameness

27 Identifying Distinctive Features of the Gait

Suggestive Traits

Reference Chart: Lameness Traits That Are Suggestive

Symptomatic Traits

Reference Chart: Lameness Traits That Are Symptomatic

Pathognomonic Traits

Reference Chart: Lameness Traits That Are Pathognomonic

28 Confirming the Primary Component(s) of Lameness

Manifestations of Referred Lameness

Reference Chart: Step-by-Step Lameness Assessment of the Horse

SECTION VII The Gait Signature

29 Designation of the Horse’s Gait Signature

Reference Chart: Sample Classification of Gait Characteristics

30 Correlating the Gait Signature with Likely Sources of Lameness

Reference Chart: Sample Correlation of Gait Deficits with Veterinary Diagnoses

SECTION VIII Applying Our Observations to the Diagnostic Process

31 Visual Observation as Part of the Diagnostic Workup

32 Building and Sharing Your Gait Signature Library

Video Archiving

Written Reports

Include the Diagnosis

Sharing Records

33 The Future of Visual Assessment and Gait Signature Characterization in the Diagnosis and Management of Equine Lameness


Video Quick Reference Library

About the Author


File Size 12 MB
File Format Pdf
Download  link Free Download | Become a Premium, Lifetime Deal!
Updates & Support Join Telegram Channel To Get New Updates | Get Help
Become a Premium Become A Premium
Browse All Books: Veterinary Books