Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ruminant, 2nd Edition

Blackwell’s Five-Minute Veterinary Consult: Ruminant, Second Edition keeps practitioners completely current with the latest in disease management for ruminants and camelids.

  • Updates the first all-in-one ruminant resource designed specifically for quick information retrieval
  • Provides identically formatted topics for easy searching by alphabetical listing or by discipline, with each topic indicating the species affected
  • Offers fast access to the accumulated wisdom of hundreds of veterinary experts
  • Adds more than 100 new topics, with significant revisions to existing topics
  • Includes access to a companion website with additional topics, client education handouts, and figures
About The Author

The Editors

Christopher Chase, DVM, PhD, DACVM (Virology & Immunology), is Professor in the Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences at South Dakota State University in Brookings, South Dakota, USA.

Kaitlyn Lutz, VMD, DABVP (Food Animal), was previously a Lecturer in the Food Animal Field Service at the University of Pennsylvania and is currently exploring private dairy practice in Ashburton, New Zealand.

Erica McKenzie, BSc, BVMS, PhD, DACVIM, DACVSMR, is a Professor of Large Animal Internal Medicine at Oregon State University in Corvallis, Oregon, USA.

Ahmed Tibary, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACT, is a Professor of Large Animal Theriogenology at College of Veterinary Medicine, Washington State University in Pullman, Washington, USA.

Table of Contents

Abomasal Emptying Defect in Sheep 1

Abomasal Impaction 3

Abomasal Ulceration 5

Abortion: Bacterial 7

Abortion: Bovine 9

Abortion: Camelid 11

Abortion: Farmed Cervidae 13

Abortion: Small Ruminant 16

Abortion: Viral, Fungal, and Nutritional 19

Actinobacillosis: Wooden Tongue 21

Actinomycosis: Lumpy Jaw 23

Acupuncture 24

Acute Renal Failure 26

Agricultural Chemical Toxicities 27

Agricultural Practices Contributing to Disease∗


Akabane 29

Alternative Medicine∗

Anaphylaxis 31

Anaplasmosis 32

Anemia, Nonregenerative 33

Anemia, Regenerative 35

Anesthesia: Inhalation 38

Anesthesia: Injectable 40

Anesthesia: Local and Regional 43

Anestrus 45

Angular Limb Deformity 47

Animal Disease Traceability (ADT)∗

Animal Welfare∗

Anthelmintic Resistance 50

Anthrax 52

Arsenic Toxicosis 54

Arthrogryposis 56

Artificial Insemination: Bovine 59

Artificial Insemination: Camelid∗

Artificial Insemination: Cervidae∗

Artificial Insemination: Small Ruminant 61

Aspiration Pneumonia 63

Atypical Interstitial Pneumonia 65

Avocado Toxicosis 67

Babesiosis 68

Bacillary Hemoglobinuria 71

Bacterial Endocarditis 73

Bacterial Meningitis 76

Beef Bull Management∗

Beef Herd Records∗

Beef Herd Reproductive Worksheets∗

Biosecurity: Beef Cow/Calf∗

Biosecurity: Cervidae∗

Biosecurity: Dairy∗

Biosecurity: Goats∗

Biosecurity: Research Herds∗

Biosecurity: Sheep∗

Bison: Bacterial Diseases 78

Bison: Clinical Examination and Treatment∗

Bison: Management∗

Bison: Parasitic Diseases 81

Bison: Viral Diseases 83

Black Locust Toxicity 86

Bloat 87

Blood Chemistry∗

Blue-Green Algae Poisoning 89

Bluetongue Virus 91

Body Condition Scoring: Alpacas and Llamas∗

Body Condition Scoring: Beef∗

Body Condition Scoring: Camels∗

Body Condition Scoring: Cervidae∗

Body Condition Scoring: Dairy Cattle∗

Body Condition Scoring: Goats∗

Body Condition Scoring: Sheep∗

Border Disease 94

Borna Disease 96

Bovine and Ovine Implants∗

Bovine Anthelmintics∗

Bovine Dermatology 98

Bovine Digital Dermatitis 100

Bovine Ephemeral Fever 103

Bovine Leukemia Virus 105

Bovine Papular Stomatitis 107

Bovine Petechial Fever 108

Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus 109

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy 111

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 113

Bracken Fern Toxicity 117

Brain Assessment and Dysfunction∗

Brassica spp. Toxicity 119

Breeding Soundness Examination: Bull 122

Breeding Soundness Examination: Camelids 124

Breeding Soundness Examination: Cervidae 128

Breeding Soundness Examination: Small Ruminant 130

Brisket Disease 132

Brucellosis 134

Buckeye (Aesculus spp.) Toxicity 136

Burn Management 137

Cache Valley Virus 140

Calf Diphtheria/Necrotic Stomatitis 142

Camel Diseases 145

Camel Management and Health Programs 149

Camelid: Dentistry 152

Camelid: Dermatology 154

Camelid: Gastrointestinal Disease 158

Camelid: Heat Stress 160

Camelid: Parasitology 162

Camelid: Reproduction 165

Camelid: Venipuncture∗

Campylobacter 169

Candidiasis 172

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus 174

Carbamate Toxicity 177

Cardiac Failure 179

Cardiotoxic Plants 181

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CLA) 184

Castor Bean Toxicity 187

Castration/Vasectomy: Bovine 188

Castration/Vasectomy: Camelid 190

Castration/Vasectomy: Small Ruminant 192

Caudal Vena Caval Thrombosis Syndrome 194

Cecal Dilation and Volvulus 196

Cervidae: Captive Management 198

Cervidae: Capture Myopathy 201

Cervidae: Chronic Wasting Disease 203

Cervidae: Game Park Management, Facilities 205

Cervidae Mortality 208

Cervidae: Reproduction 211

Cesarean Section: Bovine 213

Cesarean Section: Camelid 215

Cesarean Section: Small Ruminant 217

Chlamydiosis 219

Cleaning and Disinfection∗

Clostridial Disease: Gastrointestinal 221

Clostridial Disease: Muscular 223

Clostridial Disease: Nervous System 225

Coccidioidomycosis 228

Coccidiosis 230

Coenurosis 232

Colic: Bovine 234

Colic: Small Ruminant 236

Colostrum and Milk Replacers∗

Common Pharmacologic Therapies: Adult Dairy Cattle∗

Congenital Defects: Bovine 239

Congenital Defects: Camelid 241

Congenital Defects: Small Ruminant 243

Congenital Ocular Disorders 245

Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia 247

Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia 249

Controlled Substances∗

Copper Deficiency and Toxicity 251

Corkscrew Claw 255

Corneal Disorders 257

Coronavirus 260

Cow-Calf Management∗

Cowpox 263

Cranial Nerve Assessment and Dysfunction∗

Cryptococcosis 265

Cryptosporidiosis 267

Cyanide Toxicosis 269

Dairy Cattle Behavior∗

Dairy Cow Comfort∗

Dairy Economics∗

Dairy Heifer Management Program∗

Dairy Heifer Nutrition: Basics∗

Dairy Informatics∗

Dairy Nutrition: Ration Guidelines for Milking and Dry Cows∗

Dairy Record Evaluation∗

Dairy Reproduction∗

Dairy Sheep and Goat Industries∗

Death Camas 271


Dermatophilosis 272

Dermatophytosis 274

Diarrheal Diseases: Bovine 276

Diarrheal Diseases: Camelid 278

Diarrheal Diseases: Small Ruminant 280

Disaster and Emergency Preparedness and Response∗

Displaced Abomasum 282

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulopathy 285

Down Bovine 287

Down Camelid 289

Down Small Ruminant 292

Drug Hypersensitivities 294

Drug Interactions 296

Drug Residues in Milk∗

Drug Storage Requirements and Veterinarian-Client-Patient Relationship (VCPR)∗

Drug Toxicities 298

Dystocia: Bovine 300

Dystocia: Camelid 302

Dystocia: Small Ruminant 304

Echinococcosis 306

Economics: Net Present Value∗

Economics: Partial Budgeting∗

Embryo Transfer: Bovine 308

Embryo Transfer: Camelid 310

Embryo Transfer: Small Ruminant 312

Emesis 314

Employee Management∗

Endocrine Disorders 316

Endometritis 318


Environment and Mastitis∗

Enzootic Ataxia 321

Enzootic Pneumonia of Calves 323

Epidemiologic Study Designs∗

Epidemiology: Clinical Versus Statistical Significance∗

Epidemiology: Diagnostic Test Use∗

Epidemiology: Informatics∗

Epidemiology of Mastitis∗

Epidemiology: Risk Analysis∗

Epidemiology: Systematic Approach to Disease Outbreak Investigations∗

Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease Virus 325

Erythrocytosis (Polycythemia) 327

Escherichia coli 330

Esophageal Disorders 332

Estrus Synchronization: Bovine 335

Estrus Synchronization: Small Ruminant 337

Evaluating Corn Silages for Feed Value∗

Ewe Flock Nutrition∗

Extra-label Drug Use and Compounding∗

Failure of Passive Transfer 339

Fatty Liver 341

Feed Additives∗

Feeding By-Products to the Beef Cow Herd∗

Feeding for Milk Components∗

Fescue Toxicity 343

Floppy Kid Syndrome 345

Fluid Therapy: Intravenous 347

Fluid Therapy: Oral 350

Fluoride Toxicity 353

Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank (FARAD)∗

Foot and Mouth Disease 355

Foot Rot: Bovine 357

Foot Rot: Small Ruminant 359

Freemartinism 361

Frostbite 363

Fungal Tremorgens 365

Gaseous Toxicities∗

Gastrointestinal Pharmacology∗

Gastrointestinal Surgeries: Laparotomy∗

Gastrointestinal Surgeries: Rumenotomy/Rumenostomy∗

Goat Milk Quality∗

Goat Nutrition∗

Gossypol Toxicosis 367

Grass Tetany/Hypomagnesemia 369

Grayanotoxin 371

HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)∗

Haemonchosis 372

Hazardous Materials Spills Awareness and Response∗

Heartwater (Cowdriosis) 376

Heat Stress 378

Heavy Metal Toxicosis 380

Hemorrhagic Bowel Syndrome 384

Hemotropic Mycoplasmas (Formerly Eperythrozoonosis) 386

Hereditary Chondrodysplasia: Ovine 388

Hernia Surgery∗

Histophilus somni Complex 390

Hydrometra 394

Hydrops 396

Hypocalcemia: Bovine 398

Hypocalcemia: Small Ruminant 401

Indigestion 403

Induction of Parturition 405

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis 407

Infectious Necrotic Hepatitis 410

Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis 412

Infertility and Subfertility Issues 414

Injection Site Lesions 416

Iodine Deficiency and Toxicity 418

Jimsonweed Toxicity (Datura stramonium) 420

Johne’s Disease 421

Juvenile Llama Immunodeficiency Syndrome 423

Ketosis: Dairy Cattle 425

Lactation Failure (Dysgalactia, Agalactia, Hypogalactia) 428

Lameness: Bovine 430

Lameness: Camelid 433

Lameness: Small Ruminant 435

Laminitis in Cattle 437

Lantana Toxicosis 439

Lead Toxicosis 441

Leptospirosis 444

Leukocyte Responses in Cattle 447

Lightning Strike 451

Listeriosis 453

Liver Abscesses 455

Liver Flukes 458

Low-Fat Milk Syndrome 462

Lumpy Skin Disease 464

Lupine Toxicity 466

Lymphocytosis 468

Lymphosarcoma 470

Maedi-Visna (Ovine Progressive Pneumonia) 473

Malignant Catarrhal Fever 476

Management of Gunshot Wounds 478

Managing Neglect Cases∗

Manure Management and Environmental Planning∗

Manure Microbiology and Zoonosis∗

Mastitis: Bulk Tank Monitoring and Somatic Cell Counts∗

Mastitis: Camelids 480

Mastitis: Coliform 482

Mastitis: Fungal 484

Mastitis: Involvement of Milking Equipment and Stray Voltage∗

Mastitis: Milking Procedures and Teat Disinfection∗

Mastitis: Minor Bacteria 486

Mastitis: Monitoring∗

Mastitis: Mycoplasmal 488

Mastitis: No Growth 491

Mastitis: Pharmacology∗

Mastitis: Small Ruminant 493

Mastitis: Staphylococcal 496

Mastitis: Streptococcal 498

Melioidosis 501

Metaldehyde Toxicosis 503

Metritis 505

Microbiologic Sampling∗

Milk Cow Nutrition Monitoring∗

Milk Quality and Composition∗

Milk Vein Rupture 508

Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Toxicosis 509

Molybdenum Toxicity 511

Monensin Toxicity 513

Mycoplasma bovis Associated Diseases 516

Mycotoxins 518

Nairobi Sheep Disease 522

Nematodirosis 524

Neonatal Diarrhea 526

Neonatal Septic Arthritis 529

Neonatology: Beef 531

Neonatology: Camelid 533

Neonatology: Caprine 535

Neonatology: Dairy Cattle∗

Neonatology: Ovine∗

Neosporosis 537

Nightshade (Solanum spp.) Toxicosis 539

Nitrate and Nitrite Toxicosis 540

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)∗

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Beef 542

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Camelid∗

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Cervidae 544

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Dairy 546

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Small Ruminant 548

Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases: Water Buffalo 550

Nutritional Assessment∗

Oak (Quercus spp.) Toxicity 553

Oestrus ovis Infestation 555

Oleander and Cardiotoxic Plant Toxicity 557

Oral Disorders 560

Orchitis and Epididymitis 562

Orf (Contagious Ecthyma) 564

Organophosphate Toxicity 566

Osteochondrosis 568

Ostertagiasis 570

Otitis Media/Interna 573

Ovarian Cystic Degeneration 576

Ovarian Hypoplasia, Bursal Disease, Salpingitis 578

Ovine Encephalomyelitis (Louping Ill) 580

Ovine Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma 582

Oxalate Toxicity 584

Pain Management∗

Parainfluenza-3 Virus 586

Parasite Control Programs: Beef 588

Parasite Control Programs: Camelid 590

Parasite Control Programs: Dairy 594

Parasite Control Programs: Small Ruminant 596

Parasitic Pneumonia 600

Parasitic Skin Diseases: Bovine 602

Parasitic Skin Diseases: Camelid 605

Parasitic Skin Diseases: Small Ruminant 609

Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (Meningeal Worm) 612

Parenteral Nutrition 614

PCR Diagnostics∗

Penile Disorders 617

Penile Hematoma 620

Pericarditis 622

Perinatal Lamb Mortality 625

Peripheral Nerve Assessment and Dysfunction∗

Peste des Petits Ruminants 628

Petroleum Product Poisoning 630

Pharmaceutical Use: Legal Issues∗

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics∗

Phenoxyl Toxicity 632

Phosphorus Deficiency/Excess 634

Photosensitization 637

Pine Needle Toxicity 641

Plants Producing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome 643

Poison Hemlock (Conium spp.) Toxicity 645

Polyarthritis 647

Postpartum Disorders 649

Postparturient Hemoglobinuria 651

Postparturient Paresis (Hypocalcemia) 653

Precocious Udder 655

Pregnancy Diagnosis: Bovine 657

Pregnancy Diagnosis: Camelid 659

Pregnancy Diagnosis: Small Ruminant 661

Pregnancy Toxemia: Bovine 663

Pregnancy Toxemia: Camelid 666

Pregnancy Toxemia: Small Ruminant 668

Prolonged Pregnancy 671

Protein Nutrition 673

Prudent Use of Antimicrobials∗

Pseudocowpox 675

Pseudorabies 677

Pyelonephritis 679

Pyometra 681

Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids 683

Q Fever (Coxiellosis) 685

Quality Assurance for Meat Goats∗

Quality Assurance Programs for Beef and Dairy∗

Rabies 688

Reading and Evaluating Scientific Literature∗

Rectal Prolapse 690

Reindeer Management: Overview 691

Reindeer Management: Population Dynamics 693

Repeat Breeder Management 695

Reproductive Pharmacology 697

Reproductive Prolapse 700

Reproductive Tumors 702

Reproductive Ultrasonography: Bovine∗

Reproductive Ultrasonography: Camelid∗

Reproductive Ultrasonography: Small Ruminant∗

Respiratory Disease: Bovine 705

Respiratory Disease: Camelid 707

Respiratory Disease: Pharmacology∗

Respiratory Disease: Small Ruminant 710

Retained Placenta 712

Rift Valley Fever 715


Ringwomb 717

Rodenticide Toxicity 719

Rotavirus 723

Rumen Dysfunction: Alkalosis 726

Rumen Fluid Analysis∗

Rumen Transfaunation∗

Ruminal Acidosis 727

Ryegrass Staggers (Perennial, Lolitrem B) 730

Salmonellosis 731

Sarcocystosis 734

Schmallenberg Virus 736

Scrapie 738

Segmental Aplasia of the Reproductive Tract 741

Selenium Toxicity 743

Selenium/Vitamin E Deficiency 746

Seminal Vesiculitis 749

Senna Species 752


Sheep and Goat Pox 754

Sheep Genetics and Selection∗

Silage: Harvesting, Storing, and Feeding∗

Small Ruminant Dermatology 756

Snakebite 758

Sodium Disorders: Hypernatremia 761

Sodium Disorders: Hyponatremia 762

Sole Lesions in Dairy Cattle 763

Spinal Column and Cord Assessment and Dysfunction∗

Squamous Cell Carcinoma 766

St. John’s Wort Toxicity 769

Starvation 771

Strongyloidiasis 773

Strychnine Poisoning 776

Sulfur Toxicity 777

Sweet Clover Poisoning 779

Sweet Potato Poisoning 780

Teaser Preparation 781

Teat Lacerations 783

Teat Lesions 785

Teratogens 787

Testicular Disorders: Bovine 790

Testicular Disorders: Camelid 792

Testicular Disorders: Small Ruminant 794

Thelaziasis 796

Therapeutics in Male Reproduction: Semen∗

Tick Paralysis 797

Tobacco Toxicosis 799

Tongue Trauma 800

Total Mixed Ration: Dairy∗

Toxicology: Herd Outbreaks 801

Tracheal Edema (“Honker”) Syndrome 803

Transition Cow Management∗

Traumatic Reticuloperitonitis 805

Tremetol: White Snakeroot and Rayless Goldenrod 807

Trichomoniasis 809

Trypanosomiasis 812

Tuberculosis: Bovine 814

Ulcerative Posthitis and Vulvitis 816

Ultrasonography: Mammary 818

Umbilical Disorders 820

Urea Toxicity 823

Ureaplasma 826

Urolithiasis 828

Uterine Anomalies 831

Uterine Artery Rupture 832

Uterine Prolapse 833

Uterine Torsion: Bovine 835

Uterine Torsion: Camelid 837

Uterine Torsion: Small Ruminant 839

Vaccination Programs: Beef Cattle 841

Vaccination Programs: Camelid 844

Vaccination Programs: Cervidae 846

Vaccination Programs: Dairy Cattle 848

Vaccination Programs: Small Ruminant 850


Vagal Indigestion 852

Vaginitis 856

Vesicular Stomatitis 858

Veterinarian Legal Liabilities∗

Vitamin A Deficiency/Toxicosis 860

Vitamin B Deficiency 862

Vitamin D Deficiency/Toxicosis 864

Vomitoxin 866

Vulvitis 868

Wastewater Management: Milking Centers∗

Water Buffalo Diseases 869

Water Buffalo Management 871

Water Buffalo Parasite Issues 873

Water Buffalo: Reproduction 875

Water Hemlock 877

Water Quality Issues 878

Weight Loss: Bovine 880

Weight Loss: Camelid 882

Weight Loss: Small Ruminant 884

Wesselsbron Disease 886

Winter Dysentery 888

Wool Rot 890

Wound Management 892

Yak Management and Disease 894

Yak Reproduction 897

Yew Toxicity 899

Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity 900

Appendices 903

Appendix 1: Client Communication 905

Appendix 2: Euthanasia and Disposal 908

Appendix 3: Medical Waste Management: Expired Drugs 910

Appendix 4: Physical Examination: Bovine 912

Appendix 5: Physical Examination: Camelid 917

Appendix 6: Physical Examination: Small Ruminant 920

Index 923

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