Advances in Intervertebral Disc Disease in Dogs and Cats

Advances In Intervertebral Disc Disease In Dogs And Cats Pdf

By James Fingeroth and William Thomas

Advances in Intervertebral Disc Disease in Dogs and Cats PDF defines our present knowledge of this common clinical problem, compiling information related to the canine and feline intervertebral disc into a single resource.  As a comprehensive, focused work, the book is an authoritative reference for understanding and treating disc disease, providing a sound scientific and clinical basis for decision making.  Offering an objective synthesis of the current literature, the book supplies guidance on the approach to a potential disc rupture, surgical and medical strategies, and management of the patient.

Offering a complete understanding of intervertebral disc disease, the book describes and discusses the controversies and issues surrounding this topic, acknowledging the gaps in our knowledge.  Advances in Intervertebral Disc Disease in Dogs and Cats presents up-to-date, reliable information on this common condition for veterinary surgeons, neurologists, and general practitioners.

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Table of Contents

Contributors viii

Foreword xi
Rick LeCouteur 

Foreword xiv
Mark D. Markel, American College of Veterinary Surgeons Foundation

Preface xv

Acknowledgments xvii

Section I Intervertebral Disc Structure and Function 1

1 Embryology, Innervation, Morphology, Structure, and Function of the Canine Intervertebral Disc 3
John F. Innes and James Melrose

2 Biomechanics of the Intervertebral Disc and Why Do Discs Displace? 8
Lucas A. Smolders and Franck Forterre

3 Comparisons between Biped (Human)  and Quadruped (Canine/Feline) Intervertebral Disc Disease 14
Niklas Bergknut, Franck Forterre, Jonathan M. Levine, Steven D. Lasser, and James M. Fingeroth

Section II Disc Disease: Degenerative and other Pathology 23

4 Historical and Current Nomenclature Associated with Intervertebral Disc Pathology 25
Jonathan M. Levine and James M. Fingeroth

5 What Do We Know about the Incidence of Disc Disease in Chondrodystrophoid Dogs? 32
William B. Thomas, James M. Fingeroth, and Ragnvi Hagman

6 Feline Intervertebral Disc Disease 36
Michael Farrell and Noel Fitzpatrick

7 Is “Wobbler” Disease Related to Disc Disease? 50
Noel Fitzpatrick and James M. Fingeroth

8 Spondylosis Deformans 67
William B. Thomas and James M. Fingeroth

9 What is Fibrocartilaginous Embolism and Is It Related to IVDD? 75
Luisa De Risio

Section III Clinical Features of Intervertebral Disc Disease and Important Differentials 89

10 History, Neurologic Examination, and Neuroanatomic Localization for Spinal Cord and Nerve Root Disease 91
William B. Thomas and Luisa De Risio

11 Deep Pain: How Should We Test and Interpret Nociception? 107
James M. Fingeroth, William B. Thomas, and Luisa De Risio

12 Ascending/Descending Myelomalacia Secondary to Intervertebral Disc Herniation 115
James M. Fingeroth and Alexander de Lahunta

13 Traumatic Disc Extrusions 121
Luisa De Risio, William B. Thomas, and James M. Fingeroth

14 “Discogenic” Pain (Signs Associated With Disc Degeneration But Without Herniation): Does It Occur? 127
James M. Fingeroth and James Melrose

15 Compressive and Contusive Spinal Cord Injury Secondary to Intervertebral Disc Displacement: A Clinical Perspective 131
James M. Fingeroth, Franck Forterre, and Jonathan M. Levine

16 Advances in Imaging for Intervertebral Disc Disease 135
Patrick R. Gavin and Jonathan M. Levine

17 The Role of Nonimaging-Based Diagnostic Studies for Intervertebral Disc Herniation 147
Gwendolyn J. Levine

18 Recurrent Intervertebral Disc Herniation 151
Brigitte A. Brisson

19 When Should Dogs Be Referred for Imaging and Surgery? 156
James M. Fingeroth and William B. Thomas

20 Discospondylitis and Related Spinal Infections in the Dog and Cat 161
Sharon Kerwin

21 Neoplasias Mimicking Intervertebral Disc Herniation 168
Gwendolyn J. Levine

22 Client Communications When Confronted with a Patient with Suspected Intervertebral Disc Herniation 174
James M. Fingeroth and William B. Thomas

Section IV Nonsurgical and Adjunctive Medical Management of IVDD 179

23 Steroid Use in Intervertebral Disc Disease 181
Joseph M. Mankin and Franck Forterre

24 Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Muscle Relaxants, Opioids, and Other Treatments for Primary and Adjunctive Medical Management of Intervertebral Disc Herniation 186
James M. Fingeroth, Franck Forterre, Núria Vizcaíno Revés, and William B. Thomas

25 Neuroprotective Treatments for Acute Spinal Cord Injury Associated with Intervertebral Disc Herniation 194
Jonathan M. Levine

26 The Use of Discography and Nucleolysis in Dogs 199
James F. (Jeff) Biggart

27 Medical Management and Nursing Care for the Paralyzed Patient 208
James M. Fingeroth and William B. Thomas

Section V Surgical Management of Intervertebral Disc Herniation 215

28 What Constitutes Spinal Cord Decompression? 217
James M. Fingeroth

29 General Principles of Spinal Surgery for Intervertebral Disc Herniation 221
James M. Fingeroth and Brigitte A. Brisson

30 Cervical Disc Disease: Ventral Slot versus Hemilaminectomy versus Dorsal Laminectomy 226
Amy E. Fauber

31 Thoracolumbar Disc Disease: Dorsal Approaches versus Lateral versus Ventral Approaches. What to Do If I’m on the Wrong Side or Site (Level)? 232
Franck Forterre, Núria Vizcaíno Revés, and Luisa De Risio

32 Lumbosacral Disc Disease: Is Vertebral Stabilization Indicated? 237
Michael Farrell and Noel Fitzpatrick

33 The Rationale for Durotomy in Surgical Treatment of Intervertebral Disc Disease 251
Franck Forterre, Núria Vizcaíno Revés, and Natasha Olby

34 What Should Cover the Bone Defect after Laminectomy/Hemilaminectomy? 255
William B. Thomas and James M. Fingeroth

35 Pros and Cons of Prophylactic Fenestration: Arguments in Favor 259
Brigitte A. Brisson

36 Pros and Cons of Prophylactic Fenestration: The Potential Arguments Against 264
Franck Forterre and James M. Fingeroth

37 Use of Lasers in Veterinary Surgery and Percutaneous Laser Disc Ablation 268
Kenneth Bartels

38 Physical Rehabilitation for the Paralyzed Patient 279
Rick Wall

Section VI Future Directions 287

39 Minimally Invasive Techniques for Spinal Cord and Nerve Root Decompression 289
Michael J. Higginbotham, Otto I. Lanz, and Claude Carozzo

40 Will There be a Role for Disc Prostheses in Small Animals? 294
Filippo Adamo and Franck Forterre

Index 310

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