Radiographic Interpretation for the Small Animal Clinician, 2nd Edition

This book serves as a practical guide to radiographic interpretation and the imaging modalities used in small animal practice. The presentation incorporates a brief discussion of the technology of each modality, its use and application, and the decision process for using each modality. All imaging modalities presently in use by veterinarians are represented including plain film, MRI, ultrasound, and CT.

 

Table of Contents

1 . The Scope of Diagnostic Imaging in Small Animal

Practice …………..
Philosophy of Imaging … .
Imaging Interpretation . . . .
Types of Imaging Procedures
Diagnostic Radiology . . . . .
Radiographic Technique
Positioning . . . . .
Film Identification
Fluoroscopy . . . . . . . .
Diagnostic Ultrasound
Computed Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Nuclear Medicine Imaging

2. Principles of Radiographic

Interpretation . . . . . .
Introduction .. . . ..
Radiopacity . .. . .. .
Basic Radiographic Opacities
Bone Opacity
Soft Tissue Opacity
Fat Opacity
Gas Opacity …..
Geometry of the Radiographic Image
Radiographic Interpretation . . . .
Viewing Area …… . ..
Three-Dimensional Concept
Process of Examining the
Radiographs …….. … … .

3. Radiographic Contrast

Procedures .. . ..
Patient Preparation . . . . .. .
Contrast Media . .. ….. .
T ypes of Contrast Media
Ionic and Nonionic
Barium Sulfate Contrast Media
Adverse Effects of Barium Sulfate
Adverse Effects of Negative Contrast
Media .. . . . .. .. . . .
Contrast Examination Techniques
Intravenous Urography . . .
Cystography ……… .
Double Contrast Cystography
Positive Contrast Cystography
Pneumocystography
U rethrography
Vaginography
Esophagography
Gastrography
Upper Gastrointestinal Study
Barium Enema .. . . . . . .
Double Contrast Barium Enema
Pneumocolon or Positive Contrast
Colonic Examination
Peritoneography
Myelography
Epidurography
Discography
Arthrography
Angiography: Selective and
Nonselective . . … .
Venous Portography . . .
Pneumopericardiography
Fistulography . . . . .. .
Tracheography and Bronchography
Pleurography
Sialography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dacryocystorhinography
Otic Canalography …
Rhinography . .
Lymphography
Extrem ities
Anatomy. . . . .. . ……… .
Normal Bone Development and
Growth ………… .
Accessory Ossification Centers and
Sesamoid Bones …….. .
Variable Ossification Centers
Clinical and Radiographic Correlations
Radiographic Technique ..
Radiographic Interpretation
Definitions .
DiseasesIDisorders
Osteoporosis
Osteopetrosis
Ectrodactyly
Polydactyly
Syndactyly .
Hemimelia .
Chondrodysplasia
Pituitary Dwarfism
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia
Enchondrodystrophy . . . . . .
Dwarfism of Alaskan Malamutes
Dwarfism of Norwegian Elkhound
Chondrodysplasia of Great
Pyrenees ………….. .
Skeletal-Retinal Dysplasia in Labrador
Retrievers .. …. … .
Ocular-Skeletal Dwarfism in
Samoyed ……… .
Metaphyseal Tibial Dysplasia
Mucopolysaccharidosis
Feline Osteodystrophy …..
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Hypertrophic Osteodystrophy
Retained Enchondral Cartilage of the
Distal Ulna ………….. .
Rickets

Growth Arrest Line (Growth Retardation
Line) ………..
Hypertrophic Osteopathy

Panosteitis .. .
Lead Poisoning
Bone Infarcts
Fractures
Fracture Healing
Radiographic Evaluation of Fracture
Healing …. … .
Fracture Complications ……..

Diseases/Disorders … . … . . ….
Classification of Fracture
Complications 48
Delayed Union 48
Nonunion … 49
Malunion 49
Pseudo arthrosis 49
Premature Physeal Closure
Osteomyelitis: Bacterial and
Mycotic . ……. .
Protozoan Osteomyelitis
Neoplasia . .. . . .. . .. . …. .
DiseasesIDisorders …… .
Primary Benign Bone Tumors
and Cysts …… .
Primary Malignant Bone
Neoplasia …… .
Metastatic Malignant Bone
Neoplasia …….. .
Musculocutaneous Soft Tissue Diseases
Diseases/Disorders ……… .
Soft Tissue Swelling …….. .
Musculocutaneous Soft Tissue Masses
Musculocutaneous Emphysema
Soft Tissue Mineralization
Foreign Bodies
Arteriovenous Fistula
Lymphadenopathy
Lymphedema

5. Joints …………… .

Anatomy . . .. . ……… . .
Synovial Joints (Diarthroses) …
Fibrous Joints (Synarthroses)
Cartilage Joints (Synchondroses)
Radiographic Technique ..
Projections . ….. . .. . .. . .
Radiographic Interpretation …. . . .
Clinical and Radiographic Correlations
DiseasesIDisorders …….. .
Congenital Malformations
Conformational Deformities
Osteochondrosis and Osteochondritis
Dissecans .
Trauma ….
Physeal Injury
Osteoarthritis
Infectious Arthritis
Bacterial Arthritis
Mycoplasma and L-Forms of Bacterial
Arthritis ….. .
Rickettsial Arthritis .
Spirochetal Arthritis
Viral Arthritis
Fungal Arthritis …
Noninfectious Arthritis …. .
Idiopathic Polyarthritis …. .
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Polyarthritis/Polymyositis Complex
Polyarthritis/Meningitis Syndrome .
Sjogren Syndrome ….. .
Familial Renal Amyloidosis
Heritable Polyarthritis
Polyarteritis Nodosa
Erosive Arthritis ….
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Reiter Disease ….
Feline Polyarthritis .
Polyarthritis of the Greyhound
Synovial Cell Sarcoma .
Primary Bone Sarcoma
Metastatic Neoplasia ..
Synovial Osteochondromatosis
Villonodular Synovitis

SHOULDER ….. .

Radiographic Technique
DiseaselDisorders
Luxation
Fracture …
Osteochondrosis/Osteochondritis
Dissecans ……….. .
Biceps Tendinopathy .. . . . .
Supraspinatus and Infraspinatus
Tendinopathy
Shoulder Dysplasia
Osteoarthritis

ELBOW ….. .

Radiographic Technique
DiseaseslDisorders
Elbow Dysplasia
Osteochondrosis/Osteochondritis of
Humeral Condyle ……… .
Ununited Anconeal Process
Fragmented Medial Coronoid Process
Distractio Cubiti ……….. .
Incomplete Ossification of Humeral
Condyle .
Luxation ……… .
Subluxation ……. .
Medial Epicondylar Spur

CARPUS …….. .

Radiographic Technique ..
Diseases/Disorders
Luxation/Subluxation
Fracture . . . . . . . . .

DIGITS- Metacarpus/Metatarsus/Phalanges

Radiographic Technique
Radiographic Anatomy
DiseaseslDisorders . …
FractureILuxation .
Sesamoid Bone Fractures

Digital Neoplasia

COXOFEMORAL JOINTS AND PELVIS 

Radiographic Technique
Radiographic Anatomy
DiseaseslDisorders ….

STIFLE

Coxofemoral Luxation
Fractures of the Pelvis
Sacroiliac Luxation
Femoral HeadlNeck Fractures
Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral
Head . .. …… … .
Hip Dysplasia …….. .
Hip Dysplasia Control Programs
Radiographic Technique
Diseases/Disorders ….
Cranial Cruciate Ligament
Injury …… …. .
Caudal Cruciate Ligament
Injury …….. .. .

Osteochondrosis/Osteochondritis
Dissecans . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Luxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Avulsion of the Tendon of Origin of
the Long Digital Extensor …
Avulsion of the Origin of the Popliteal
Muscle … . ……
Intraarticular Ossification
Avulsion of the Tibial
Tuberosity . . . . . . . .
Patellar Luxation/Subluxation
Ruptured Patellar Tendon

TARSUS ………… .

Radiographic Technique
DiseaseslDisorders ….
Luxation/Subluxation
Calcanean Tendon Injury
Osteochondrosis/Osteochondritis
Dissecans . … . . … . .. .

Skull ………. .

Radiographic Technique
Other Imaging … …. .
Radiographic Anatomy .. .
Radiographic Interpretation

C~LVAULT(CALVAJUUM)

Radiographic Anatomy
Diseases/Disorders
Hydrocephalus
Occipital Dysplasia
Fractures … .. .
Temporomandibular Subluxation
or Luxation
Infection
Craniomandibular Osteopathy ….
Lesions of the External, Middle, and
Inner Ear …………. . .
Neoplasms …………… .

NASAL CAVITY AND PARANASALSINUSES 

Radiographic Anatomy
DiseasesIDisorders …
Fractures of the Face and Frontal
Area …. . ……… .
Infections ………… .
Neoplasms Involving the Nasal
Cavity .. … .

TEETH

Radiographic Anatomy
Effect of Age . . . . . . .
Radiographic Examination
DiseasesIDisorders …
Dental Anomalies ..
Dental Calculus
Dental Decay (Caries) 120
Tooth Resorption 120
Periodontal Disease 121
Apical Infection 121
Fractures of Tooth 122
Metabolic Diseases 122
Neoplasms of the Teeth and the
Oral Cavity 123

SALIVARY GLANDS 

Radiographic Anatomy
Diseases/Disorders
Sialolithiasis . . . .
Sialocoele …..
Salivary Duct Fistula
Neoplasms
Nasolacrimal Duct
Abnormalities …. .. . . .
Spine
Vertebral Development
Vertebral Anatomy
Radiographic Technique
Other Imaging …
Radiographic Interpretation
Myelography
Interpretation
DiseasesIDisorders
Spinal Bifida
Block Vertebra
Hemivertebra
Transitional Vertebrae
Sacrococcygeal Dysgenesis
Spinal Curvature Deformities
Osteoporosis . . . . . . . . . . .
Hypervitaminosis A in the Cat
Mucopolysaccharidosis
Atlantoaxial Subluxation
Cervical Spondylopathy
Lumbosacral Instability
Osteochondrosis
Calcinosis Circumscripta
Spinal Trauma . .. . . .
Intervertebral Disk Disease
Schmorl’s Nodes ….
Dural Ossification
Spondylosis Deformans
Disseminated Idiopathic Skeletal
Hyperostosis …….. .
Osteoarthritis of the Articular
Facets
Spondylitis …… .
Diskospondylitis
Osteochondromatosis
Neoplasia ……. .

8 . Thorax (Noncardiac)

Radiographic Technique .. . .
Standard Projections .. .
Supplemental Projections
Radiographic Anatomy …..
Radiographic Interpretation: Systematic
Evaluation … .. …….. .

LARYNX AND HYOID BONES

Radiographic Interpretation
Diseases/Disorders …..
Laryngeal Hypoplasia
Laryngeal Paralysis
Laryngeal Neoplasia
The Hyoid Bones

TRACHEA AND MAJOR AIRWAyS . . ….. .

Radiographic Interpretation
DiseasesIDisorders .. …

LUNG

Hypoplastic Trachea
Tracheal Stenosis
Trachea Collapse
Endotracheal Masses
Tracheal Rupture
Tracheal Foreign Body
Tracheitis .. …
Bronchial Collapse
Bronchitis …. .
Bronchiectasis
Bronchial Obstruction
Lower Airway Disease
Radiographic Interpretation
Patterns of Lung Disease
Alveolar Pattern
Interstitial Pattern
Bronchial Pattern
Vascular Pattern .

Diseases/Disorders …
Pulmonary Edema
Pulmonary Hemorrhage .
Pulmonary Hematomas and
Pneumatoceles 162
Pneumonia
Interstitial Pneumonia
Aspiration Pneumonia
Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Pulmonary Abscess
Atelectasis ……….
Emphysema . . . . . . . . .
Pulmonary Cysts, Bullae and Blebs,
and Other Cavitating Lung
Lesions …………..
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease ………..
Lung Torsion . . . . . . . . .
Pulmonary Thrombosis and
Thromboembolism . . .
Adult Respiratory Distress
Syndrome
Parasitic Pneumonia
Toxoplasmosis
Paragonimus
Aeleurostrongylus
Mycotic Pneumonia
Histoplasmosis ..
Blastomycosis . . .
Coccidioidomycosis
Nocardiosis ..
Cryptococcosis .
Pneumocystis ..
Pulmonary Neoplasia
Primary Pulmonary Neoplasia
Metastatic Pulmonary Neoplasia

MEDIASTINUM …… 

Radiographic Anatomy
Diseases/Disorders …
Mediastinal Shift .
Pneumomediastinum
Mediastinal Mass
Diffuse Mediastinal Enlargement
Focal Mediastinal Enlargement

PLEURA AND PLEURAL SPACE 

Normal Anatomy .. . .
Radiographic Anatomy
Diseases !Disorders . . .
Pleural Effusion
Pleural Thickening
Pleural Neoplasms
Other Pleural Masses
Pneumothorax

THORACIC WALL. . . . . . . 

Contents xiii
Diseases/Disorders ……… . . .
Soft Tissue Abnormalities ….
Congenital Anomalies of the Chest
Wall …. …
Pectus Excavatum .
Pectus Carina turn .
Sternal Dysraphism
Fractures of the Sternum and
Ribs … . ……….
Masses of the Thoracic Wall

DIAPHRAGM ……….. 

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Bilateral Displacement of the
Diaphragm . . . . . . . . . .
Unilateral Displacement of the
Diaphragm . . . . . .
Diseases/Disorders ……
Diaphragmatic Hernia
Diaphragmatic Tumors
Diaphragmatic Abscess

9. Heart 

Radiographic Technique . . . . . . . . . .
Exposure Technique and Film Quality
Standard Projections . . .
Supplemental Projections
Contrast Radiography ..
Other Imaging . . . . . . .
Radiographic Anatomy of Normal Canine and
Feline Heart . . . . . . . . .
Lateral Projection . . . .
Dorsoventral Projection
Radiographic Interpretation .
Normal Heart Size and Shape
Normal Variables for Heart Size and
Shape ……………..
Evaluation of Heart Chamber
Enlargement . . . . . . . . .
Right Atrial Enlargement …
Right Ventricular Enlargement
Left Atrial Enlargement ….
Left Ventricular Enlargement
Generalized Heart Enlargement
Evaluation of Major Vessels .. .
Aortic Arch and Aorta . . .
Pulmonary Artery Segment
Enlargement …. .
Caudal Vena Cava .. .
Evaluation of the Pulmonary
Circulation ….. .
Hypovascularity .
Hypervascularity
Diseases!Disorders
Congestive Heart Failure
Microcardia …………….
Congenital Heart Disease …. . .. . …
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (Left to Right
Shunt) ………………
Reverse Patent Ductus Arteriosus (Right
to Left Shunt) .
Pulmonic Stenosis
Aortic Stenosis
Ventricular Septal Defect
Tetralogy of Fallot ….
Atrioventricular Valve Malformation and
Dysplasia ……..
Vascular Ring Anomalies
Situs Inversus …….
Acquired Heart Disease
Chronic Valvular Disease
Mitral Valvular Insufficiency
Tricuspid Valvular Insufficiency
Infectious Endocarditis
Dirofilariasis ………
Canine Heartworm Disease
Feline Heartworm Disease
Cardiomyopathy ……
Canine Dilated Cardiomyopathy
Doberman Pinscher Cardiomyopathy
Boxer Cardiomyopathy ………
English Cocker Spaniel
Cardiomyopathy . . . . . . . . . . ..
Canine Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Feline Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy
Feline Restrictive Cardiomyopathy
Feline Congestive Cardiomyopathy
Intermediate (Indeterminate)
Cardiomyopathy . . . . . . . . .
Hyperthyroid Myocardial Disease
Systemic Hypertension
Myocardial Neoplasia …
Heart Base Tumors
Aortic Thromboembolism
Pericardial Diseases ……. .
Anatomy and Physiology .
Peritoneopericardial Diaphragmatic
Hernia ….. .
Pericardial Cysts
Pericardial Effusion
Constrictive Pericarditis
Pericardial Masses

10. Abdomen: Peritoneal and Retroperitoneal Cavities

Anatomy ……….. .
Radiographic Interpretation ..
DiseaseslDisorders …… .
Loss of Abdominal Detail
Intraabdominal Gas Accumulation
Intraabdominal Focal Opacities
Abdominal Lymph Nodes
Peritoneal Hernias

11. Gastrointestinal System

Radiographic Anatomy …. .
DiseaseslDisorders …… .
Pharyngeal Inflammation
Pharyngeal and Retropharyngeal
Masses …………. .
Dysphagia and Cricopharyngeal
Achalasia ..,….

ESOPHAGUS

Radiographic Anatomy
Contrast Radiography
Diseases/Disorders …
Esophagitis
Esophagea1 Foreign Bodies
Vascular Ring Anomalies
Esophageal Stricture
Esophageal Neoplasia .
Esophageal Diverticuli
Megaesophagus
Gastroesophageal
Intussusception

LIVER. ………… .

Radiographic Anatomy
Normal Radiographic Appearance
Diseases/Disorders …..
Liver Enlargement . .
Decreased Liver Size

GALL BLADDER ….. .

Anatomy …….. .
Radiographic Anatomy
DiseaseslDisorders
Cholecystitis
Cholelithiasis

Parasitic Disease of the Gall Bladder
and/or Bile Ducts

SPLEEN …………… 

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Diseases/Disorders ..
Splenomegaly …
Splenic Torsion
Splenic Neoplasia
Splenic Abscess
Splenic Rupture .

PANCREAS ……… .

Radiographic Anatomy
DiseaseslDisorders .. .
Pancreatitis … .
Pancreatic Masses

STOMACH ……… .

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Diseases/Disorders ….. .
Gastric Enlargement
Gastric Wall Abnormalities
Gastric Emptying
Acute Gastritis .
Chronic Gastritis
Gastric Ulcers
Gastric Neoplasia
Gastric Foreign Bodies
Gastric Dilation and Volvulus
Pyloric Outflow Obstruction

SMALL BOWEL .. . . .. . .. 

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Contrast Radiographs
Contrast Media .. . …..
Diseases/Disorders ….. .
Enteritis and Inflammatory Bowel
Disease . …….
Intestinal Obstruction .
Linear Foreign Bodies
Intussusception . . . . .
Small Bowel Neoplasia
Mesenteric Volvulus
Mesenteric Thrombosis
Intestinal Perforation .

LARGE BOWEL . . …. 

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Findings
Contrast Radiographs
DiseaseslDisorders .
Acute Colitis
Chronic Colitis
Cecal Inversion
Neoplasia
Perineal Hernia and Perineal
DiverticulilRectal Diverticuli
Imperforate Anus

12. Urinary System and Adrenal
Glands ……………
Radiographic Technique

KIDNEYS AND URETERS ..

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Survey Radiographs ..
Causes of Observed Variations
Contrast Radiographs . … .. .
Intravenous Urography . . .
Indications for Intravenous
Urography …. .. .. .
Interpretation of the Intravenous
Urogram .. .. .. . . … . .
Contents xv
DiseaseslDisorders ……. .
Congenital Renal Disease
Ectopic Ureter .. . .. . .
Nephritis and Pyelonephritis
Renal Cysts … …. . . .
Feline Perirenal Cysts
Renal and Ureteral Calculi
Hydronephrosis … . . . .
Renal Neoplasia …. .. .
Renal and Ureteral Rupture

URINARY BLADDER AND URETHRA 

Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Sur:yey Radiographs .
Contrast Radiographs
Diseases/Disorders
Cystitis . . . . . . .
Cystic Calculi . . .
Ruptured Bladder
Emphysematous Cystitis
Neoplasms of the Urinary
Bladder

URETHRA 

Anatomy … .
Radiographic Interpretations
Contrast Radiographs
Diseases/Disorders ..
Urethritis
Urethral Calculi
Ruptured Urethra
Urethral Neoplasia
Urethrorectal Fistula
ADRENAL GLANDS
Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Interpretation
Diseases/Disorders ….. .
Adrenal Gland Enlargement
Adrenal Gland Mineralization
Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison’s
Disease) … .. …. . .. .
Pheochromocytoma .. . …..
Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing’s
Syndrome) . . . . . . . . . . ..

13. Genital System
Male … . . . .. . . .

PROSTATE GLAND

Anatomy …..
Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Findings
DiseaseslDisorders ….. .
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
Prostatitis, Prostatic Abscess
Prostatic CalculilProstatic
Mineralization . .. . … .
Paraprostatic Cyst ..
Prostatic Neoplasia .

TESTICLE 

Radiographic Interpretation
DiseaseslDisorders …..
Cryptorchidism . . . . .
OrchitislEpididymitis .
Testicular Torsion …
Testicular Neoplasia
Infections and Tumors of the
Penis …………
Fractures of the Os Penis
Female …………. .
Radiographic Anatomy
Radiographic Findings .
Contrast Radiographs .

OVARIES AND UTERUS

Diseases/Disorders ..
Ovarian Masses
Uterine Masses .
The Gravid Uterus
Dystocia and Fetal Death …
Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia!
Pyometra Complex
Cervical Masses
Diseases of the Vagina
Hermaphroditism
Suggested Readings
Glossary
Index 299

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