Orthopaedic Pathologies of the Stifle Joint

By José Luis Vérez-Fraguela, Roberto Köstlin, Rafael Latorre Reviriego, Salvador Climent Peris, Francisco Miguel Sánchez Margallo and Jesús Usón Gargallo

Orthopaedic Pathologies of the Stifle Joint PDF deals with the main orthopaedic conditions of the stifle joint in dogs and cats, so veterinary surgeons can assess, diagnose and treat the disorders commonly seen in their practice. It is intended to help veterinary clinicians make a correct diagnosis and prognosis and establish the most appropriate drug or surgical treatment for each case. Orthopaedic pathologies of the stifle joint contains plenty of high-quality images and illustrations as well as links to videos through QR codes, which provide additional information and contribute to making the book even more practical.

Table of Contents

1. Semiology of the stifle joint

3D drawings of the anatomical structures

Introduction

Anatomy

Bone structures

Capsuloligamentous structures

Menisci

Musculotendinous system

Clinical examination

Inspection

Palpation

Manoeuvres to detect intra-articular fluid

Manoeuvres to evaluate mobility

Arthrocentesis of the stifle joint

2. Clinical evaluation of the stifle joint and decision-making

Medical history

Clinical examination

Visual inspection

Matters and signs to be evaluated in the physical examination

Radiological examination

Therapeutic approach to soft tissue injuries

Exploratory tests of the stifle joint

Patella

Menisci and ligaments

Other structures

Algorithms for decision-making

3. Fractures of the bones related to the stifle joint

Fractures of the distal end of the femur

Aetiology of the injury

Clinical examination

Radiological examination

Treatment

Complications

Fractures of the proximal end of the tibia

Aetiopathogenesis

Clinical examination

Radiological examination

Treatment

Traumatic injuries of the patella

Contusion

Dislocation

Fracture

4. Injuries of the flexors and extensors of the stifle joint

Anatomy and biomechanics of the extensors

The quadriceps femoris muscle and its tendon of insertion

The patella

The patellar ligament and the infrapatellar fat pad

Main disorders

Rupture of the collateral ligaments

Rupture of the patellar ligament

Tearing and ossification of the tendon of origin of the long digital extensor muscle

Dislocation of the tendon of origin of the long digital extensor muscle

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Chondropathy or chondromalacia of the patella

Dislocation of the stifle joint

Fat pad abnormalities (Hoffa’s disease)

Tumours

5. Dislocation of the stifle joint and patella

Dislocation of the stifle joint

Mechanism and classification

Associated injuries

Treatment

Dislocation of the patella

Mechanism and classification

Treatment

6. Injuries of the ligaments and menisci of the stifle joint

Introduction

Biomechanics of the stifle joint

Capsule and ligaments

Menisci

Rupture of the cruciate ligaments

Biomechanics in the failure of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) mechanism

Clinical signs

Diagnosis

Treatment of rupture of the cruciate ligaments

Injuries of the meniscus

Postoperative care

7. Tibial plateau levelling osteotomy using Slocum’s technique

Introduction

Basic biomechanics and history of the technique

Surgical technique

Postoperative care

8. Surgical technique for tibial tuberosity advancement

Introduction

Basic biomechanics

Preoperative plan

Surgical technique

Postoperative radiographic monitoring

Postoperative care

9. Osteochondritis dissecans and osteonecrosis

Osteochondritis dissecans

Introduction

Aetiopathogenesis and location

Diagnosis

Treatment

Osteonecrosis

Aetiopathogenesis

Epidemiology and location

Diagnosis

Treatment

10. Osteoarthritis

Introduction

Aetiopathogenesis

Basic mechanisms associated with the start of the process

Clinical implications

Pain

Limited mobility

Joint abnormalities

Treatment

Medical treatment

Surgical treatment

11. Soft tissue disease

Introduction

Intra-articular diseases

Injury in the synovial folds or plicae

Bursitis and pain in the infrapatellar fat pad

Reflex sympathetic dystrophy

Musculotendinous diseases

Rupture of the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle

Contracture of the quadriceps femoris muscle

Rupture and injury of the patellar ligament

Patellar tendinitis

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Periarticular injuries

Cranial aspect

Caudal aspect

Medial aspect

Lateral aspect

Annex. Surgical approaches

Approach to the distal portion of the femur and stifle joint through a lateral incision

Approach to the medial collateral ligament and caudomedial region of the stifle joint

Approach to the lateral collateral ligament and caudolateral region of the stifle joint

Approach to the proximal portion of the tibia through a medial incision

References

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