A Guide to Sample Size for Animal-based Studies

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A Guide To Sample Size For Animal-Based Studies Pdf Download

By Penny S. Reynolds

A Guide to Sample Size for Animal-based Studies PDF. Animal-based research is an essential part of basic and preclinical research, but poses a unique set of experimental design challenges. The most important of these are the 3Rs – Replacement, Reduction and Refinement – the principles comprising the ethical framework for humane animal-based studies. However, many researchers have difficulty navigating the design trade-offs necessary to simultaneously minimize animal use, and produce scientific information that is both rigorous and reliable.

A Guide to Sample Size for Animal-based Studies meets this need with a thorough, accessible reference work to the subject. This book provides a straightforward systematic approach to “rightsizing” animal-based experiments, with sample size estimates based on the fundamentals of statistical thinking: structured research questions, variation control and appropriate design of experiments. The result is a much-needed guide to planning animal-based experiments to ensure scientifically valid and reliable results.

A Guide to Sample Size for Animal-based Studies offers:

  • Step-by-step guidance in diverse methods for approximating and refining sample size
  • Detailed treatment of research topics specific to animal-based research, including pilot, feasibility and proof-of-concept studies
  • Sample size approximation methods for different types of data – binary, continuous, ordinal, time to event – and different study types – description, comparison, nested designs, reference interval construction and dose-response studies
  • Numerous worked examples, using real data from published papers, together with SAS and R code

A Guide to Sample Size for Animal-based Studies is a must-have reference for preclinical and veterinary researchers, as well as ethical oversight committees and policymakers.

Table of Contents
  1. Introduction : The sample size problem in animal-based research
  2. Sample size basics
  3. Ten strategies to increase information (and reduce animal numbers)
  4. Introduction to pilot studies
  5. Operational pilots
  6. Empirical and translational pilots
  7. Feasibility calculations : Arithmetic estimation
  8. Feasibility calculations : Probability-based estimation
  9. Introduction to descriptive studies
  10. Confidence intervals
  11. Prediction intervals
  12. Tolerance intervals
  13. Reference intervals
  14. Hypothesis testing, power, non-centrality
  15. A bestiary of effect sizes
  16. Comparing two groups : Continuous outcomes
  17. Comparing two groups : Binary and count outcomes
  18. Comparing two groups : Time to event outcomes
  19. Comparing multiple factors
  20. Multi-level and hierarchical designs
  21. Ordinal data
  22. Dose-response studies

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