Servet Clinical Guides: Chronic Kidney Disease

Servet Clinical Guides: Chronic Kidney Disease

By Carmen María Pineda Martos, Ignacio López Villalba

Servet Clinical Guides: Chronic Kidney Disease PDF provides veterinary surgeons with the most up-to-date information on this disease to help them establish diagnosis and select the most appropriate treatment for each patient. Readers are provided with a series of guidelines, presented in a visual and dynamic manner, that will help them develop an effective relationship with the owner and explain the key aspects of their pet’s disease.

Table of Contents

1. Visit the clinic

What is chronic kidney disease?

What is the first sign that the owner observes?

Anamnesis to guide the diagnosis

Risk factors

Differential clinical signs

Clinical examination protocol

Points to which particular attention should be paid

2. Diagnostic protocols

Identifying the primary disease

Most common laboratory alterations


Blood biochemical analysis


Acid–base and electrolyte analyses

Blood pressure measurement

Useful diagnostic imaging tests



Computed tomography

Magnetic resonance imaging


Specialised diagnostic tests

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate

New markers of renal function

How to manage phosphocalcic metabolism


Renal biopsy

Staging and diagnostic criteria for CKD

3. Communication with the pet owner

How to inform the owner

Can an animal with CKD be cured?

Can disease progression be predicted?

CKD prognosis

How long can an animal live with CKD?

What factors influence survival time?

Guidelines to follow once diagnosis is established

4. Treatment protocols

Medical treatment of the patient

Dietary modification as a fundamental pillar of treatment

Correction of dehydration and management of acid–base and electrolyte alterations

Treatment of gastrointestinal signs

Treatment of anaemia

Treatment of hyperphosphataemia

Treatment of hypertension

Treatment of proteinuria

Other treatments


Mesenchymal stem cell therapy



Control of uraemic crisis in cases of exacerbation of CKD

Use of replacement therapies

5. Guidelines for the owner: follow-up

Owner involvement, a key element in the management of CKD

What signs should be monitored once diagnosis is established?

How often should periodic check-ups be performed?

How often should a patient with CKD visit the veterinary clinic?

What should we do when the disease progresses to terminal stages?

6. Appendix

Suggested treatment protocols according to IRIS CKD stage

Recommended reading

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