Practical Atlas of Ruminant and Camelid Reproductive Ultrasonography

Practical Atlas of Ruminant and Camelid Reproductive Ultrasonography

By Luc DesCôteaux, Jill Colloton and Giovanni Gnemmi

Practical Atlas of Ruminant and Camelid Reproductive Ultrasonography PDF is a practical, fully referenced, image-based guide to the essential concepts of reproductive ultrasound in domesticated ruminants and camelids. Providing information to enable practitioners to incorporate ultrasound service into their practices, the book also includes more specialized information for advanced techniques such as fetal sexing, embryo transfer, color Doppler, and others. Practical Atlas of Ruminant and Camelid Reproductive Ultrasonography is a must-have reference for ruminant and camelid practitioners, instructors, and students.

“This book is a must-have for any veterinarian performing reproductive ultrasound in ruminants and camelids. The quality of pictures, text, and overall coverage of the subject make it a valuable reference.” (Doody’s, 23 September 2011)
Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgments xi

Introduction xiii

Contributors xv

Chapter 1 Principles and Recommendations, Essential Concepts, and Common Artifacts in Ultrasound imaging 3

Description and practical recommendations in the choice of ultrasound equipment with a view to image quality 3

General principles and essential concepts to improve image quality 9

Common artifacts 12

Chapter 2 Scanning Techniques and Common Errors in Bovine Practice 21

Description of scanning technique 21

Manipulation of the probe 21

Common errors 23

Chapter 3 Anatomy of the Reproductive Tract of the Cow 27

Genital tract 27

Descriptive terminology of the ovary and ovarian structures 30

Chapter 4 Bovine Ovary 35

Endocrinology and ovarian structures in pubertal cows 35

Ovarian anomalies and differential diagnosis 42

Use of color Doppler to monitor ovarian blood flow 48

Ultrasound use in reproduction synchronization protocols for dairy cattle: Two perspectives 54

Chapter 5 Bovine Uterus 61

Ultrasound of the uterus during the estrous cycle and normal postpartum period 61

Color Doppler sonography of the uterine blood flow 67

Ultrasound of the postpartum abnormal uterus and vagina 70

Chapter 6 Bovine Pregnancy 81

Morphologic embryonic and fetal development up to day 55 81

Ultrasound landmarks of standard early pregnancy diagnosis 87

Early embryonic and fetal death 90

Twins 93

Chapter 7 Bovine Fetal Development After 55 Days, Fetal Sexing, Anomalies, and Well-Being 101

Fetal development after 55 days 101

Ultrasound fetal sexing 107

Fetal anomalies 113

Fetal well-being during late pregnancy (normal gestation, compromised pregnancy, and clone) 116

Chapter 8 Bovine Embryo Transfer, in Vitro Fertilization, Special Procedures, and Cloning 125

Embryo donors 126

Oocyte collection for in vitro fertilization 135

Recipients 136

Management of clone recipients 138

Chapter 9 Bull Anatomy and Ultrasonography of the Reproductive Tract 143

Ultrasound equipment and techniques 143

Anatomy of the reproductive system 145

Anomalies and ultrasonographic imaging of external and internal reproductive organs 153

Chapter 10 Buffalo and Zebu Cattle 163

Equipment and scanning techniques 164

Major differences between bovine and bubaline species 165

Pathology 171

Congenital and hereditary defects 173

Ultrasound services in buffalo and zebu 173

Chapter 11 Sheep and Goats 181

Usefulness of ultrasonography in small ruminants 181

Equipment and scanning techniques 181

Ultrasonographic imaging of the female reproductive tract 182

Endocrine and ovarian processes that comprise the normal estrous cycle and pregnancy 186

Fetal count, age, and sex 194

Pathological conditions in the female 197

Ultrasonographic evaluation of the male genital system 199

Common abnormalities of the testis 204

Common abnormalities of the accessory glands 208

Chapter 12 Camelids 211

Usefulness of ultrasonography in camelids 211

Equipment and scanning techniques 211

Ultrasonographic anatomy 213

Ovarian function and endocrinology in South American camelids 215

Pregnancy diagnosis and evaluation of fetal growth 217

Uterine and ovarian abnormalities 219

Index 225

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