Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets


Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets

Ophthalmology Of Exotic Pets Pdf

By David L. Williams

Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets PDF covers the diagnosis and treatment of eye disease in a range of exotic companion animal species, including rabbits, rodents, reptiles, birds, amphibians and fish. It clarifies when extrapolation from cat or dog eyes is appropriate, or when new information is needed to ensure that diagnoses and treatments are appropriate for the particular species. Writing in an accessible and down to earth style, the author brings a wealth of personal experience to this specialised subject area. The book contains many ophthalmic photographs of both anatomy in normal eyes and pathology in abnormal cases. It also includes a separate chapter on the common ophthalmic features of exotic pets, discussing what can be learnt from cross-species comparison and another chapter giving a brief history of comparative ophthalmology.

Ophthalmology of Exotic Pets is an invaluable aid for veterinary practitioners and students with an interest in exotic pet species, as well as for veterinary ophthalmologists.


  • Covers lagomorphs, rodents, reptiles, birds, amphibians and fish
  • Offers clear guidance for species-specific treatment
  • Facilitates extrapolations from the cat or dog to the exotic eye
  • Written in a concise quick reference format
  • Highly illustrated with colour photographs
Table of Contents

Foreword viii

Acknowledgements x

Dedication xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Reference 2

Chapter 2 A brief history of comparative ophthalmology 3

References 8

Chapter 3 Common features of exotic animal ophthalmology 9

Ocular examination 9

Ancillary tests 11

Ocular pharmacology 13

References 13

Chapter 4 The rabbit eye 15

Introduction 15

Anatomy and physiology of the rabbit eye 15

What do rabbits see? 18

Adnexal disease 21

Diseases of the orbit 36

Diseases of the cornea 39

Diseases of the lens 44

Diseases of the iris 46

Glaucoma 49

Retinal disease 52

References 52

Chapter 5 The guinea pig eye 56

Anatomy and physiology of the guinea pig eye 56

What do guinea pigs see? 56

Diseases of the guinea pig eye 57

References 72

Chapter 6 The ferret eye 73

Anatomy and physiology of the ferret eye 73

What do ferrets see? 73

Diseases of the ferret eye 75

References 84

Chapter 7 The rat and mouse eye 86

Anatomy of the eye 86

A note on ophthalmoscopy 87

What do rats and mice see? 88

Ophthalmic disease in rats and mice 89

References 106

Chapter 8 The eye of other mammalian exotic pet species 109

Introduction 109

Hamsters 109

Gerbils 110

Chinchillas 111

Degus 111

Hedgehogs 112

Primates 114

References 116

Chapter 9 The avian eye 119

Introduction 119

Anatomy and physiology of the avian eye 119

What do birds see? 127

Evaluating the avian eye 130

Orbital disease 131

Lid and adnexal disease 135

Corneal disease 143

Uveal disease 146

Lens disease 148

Retinal disease 151

Horner’s syndrome 152

Enucleation 153

References 155

Chapter 10 The reptile eye 159

Introduction 159

Anatomy and physiology of the reptilian eye 159

Biology of the reptilian spectacle 162

What do reptiles see? 164

Diseases of the reptile eye 167

References 193

Chapter 11 The amphibian eye 197

Anatomy and physiology of the amphibian eye 197

What do amphibians see? 199

Diseases of the amphibian eye 200

Enucleation 208

Conclusion 208

References 208

Chapter 12 The fish eye 211

Introduction 211

Anatomy and physiology of the fish eye 212

What do fish see? 214

Diseases of the aquarium fish eye 216

References 227

Conclusions 228

Index 231

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