Diseases of Swine, 11th Edition
Diseases of Swine has been the definitive reference on swine health and disease for over 60 years. This new edition has been completely revised to include the latest information, developments, and research in the field. Now with full color images throughout, this comprehensive and authoritative resource has been redesigned for improved consistency and readability, with a reorganized format for more intuitive access to information.
Diseases of Swine covers a wide range of essential topics on swine production, health, and management, with contributions from more than 100 of the foremost international experts in the field. This revised edition makes the information easy to find and includes expanded information on welfare and behavior.
A key reference for anyone involved in the swine industry, Diseases of Swine, Eleventh Edition:
- Presents a thorough revision to the gold-standard reference on pig health and disease
- Features full color images throughout the book
- Includes information on the most current advances in the field
- Provides comprehensive information on swine welfare and behavior
- Offers a reorganized format to make the information more accessible
Written for veterinarians, academicians, students, and individuals and agencies responsible for swine health and public health, Diseases of Swine, Eleventh Edition is an essential guide to swine health.
JEFFREY J. ZIMMERMAN, DVM, PhD, DACVPM, is Professor of Disease Ecology in the Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA.
LOCKE A. KARRIKER, DVM, MS, DACVPM, is Professor of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine and Director of the Swine Medicine Education Center at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA.
ALEJANDRO RAMIREZ, DVM, MPH, PhD, DACVPM, is Associate Professor of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA.
KENT J. SCHWARTZ, DVM, MS, is Clinical Professor and Diagnostician at the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in Ames, Iowa, USA.
GREGORY W. STEVENSON, DVM, PhD, DACVP, is Professor of Veterinary Pathology and Diagnostic Pathologist at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA.
JIANQIANG ZHANG, MD, MS, PhD, is Associate Professor of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa, USA.
Editors’ Note xxi
Section I Veterinary Practice 1
1 Herd Evaluation 3
Records, benchmarks, four circles approach, diagnostic approaches, prioritizing interventions, reporting, blood sample collection, oral fluid collection.
2 Behavior and Welfare 17
Definitions of welfare, normal vs. abnormal behaviors, maternal behaviors, minimizing welfare impact of invasiveprocedures, feeding and drinking behaviors, human interactions, behavior responses due to disease, recognizing pain, vices, objective measures of pain.
3 Genetics and Health 42
Genetic influences on mortality, disease resistance, immune response and sow productive lifetime, with a summary of recent genetic advances.
4 Effect of Environment on Health 50
Evaluation of the environment, recommended air temperatures, minimum ventilation rates, space recommendations, water requirements, feeder space recommendations. Investigation of death due to ventilation failure.Impact of noise levels and stray voltage.
5 Differential Diagnosis of Diseases 59
Diarrhea, vomiting, rectal prolapses, respiratory distress, anemia, sneezing, skin, neurologic, lameness, reproductive, congenital, zoonotic, vesicular lesions, urinary tract.
6 Diagnostic Tests, Test Performance, and Considerations for Interpretation 75
How diagnostic tests are performed, advantages, and disadvantages. PCR testing considerations including quantitative interpretation. Appropriate uses of genetic sequencing. Descriptions of metagenomics technology.
7 Optimizing Sample Selection, Collection, and Submission to Optimize Diagnostic Value 98
Developing the diagnostic plan, diagnostic sample selection, pig necropsy, necropsy safety, knife sharpening.
8 Collecting Evidence and Establishing Causality 112
Sources of variation in test results, sensitivity and specificity, testing in series or parallel, selecting test cutoff values, selecting appropriate sample size, screening and confirmatory tests. Evidence-based medicine, establishing baselines, evaluating interventions.
9 Disease Control, Prevention, and Elimination 123
Routes of transmission, ecology of disease, pathogen cycles, biological risk management, principles of biosecurity, biocontainment, bioexclusion.
10 Drug Pharmacology, Therapy, and Prophylaxis 158
Antimicrobial drug classes, considerations for treatment, residue avoidance, establishing treatment regimens, limiting the development of resistance, parasiticides, impact of drug treatment on immunity, bacteriophages, probiotics, hormones, anti-inflammatory drugs.
11 Anesthesia and Surgical Procedures in Swine 171
Injectable anesthetic agents, sedation, catheterization techniques, epidural injection, anesthetic drug combinations, reversal agents and pain management. Surgical procedures including castration, correction of prolapses, cystostomy procedures, cesarean section, fracture repair, tusk removal, abdominal and musculoskeletal procedures.
12 Preharvest Food Safety, Zoonotic Diseases, and the Human Health Interface 197
Physical, chemical, and biologic hazards, drug residues, MRSA, feed safety, certification programs.
13 Special Considerations for Show and Pet Pigs 211
Dynamics of the show pig industry, biosecurity, zoonotic implications, vaccination protocols, behavior and training, ethics, teeth trimming, hoof trimming, obesity, and parasites.
Section II Body Systems 221
14 Cardiovascular and Hematopoietic Systems 223
Anatomy, pathophysiology, mulberry heart disease, anemia, shock, clinical pathology.
15 Digestive System 234
Interactions of flora, nutrition, immune system, anatomy, pathophysiology, gastric ulcers, hemorrhagic bowel syndrome, prolapses, hernias.
16 Immune System 264
Innate and adaptive immunity. Cellular, humoral, mucosal and passive immune mechanisms. Stress, nutrition, immunosuppression, vaccination. Lactogenic immunity.
17 Integumentary System: Skin, Hoof, and Claw 292
Pathophysiology of skin, infectious conditions, vesicles, ear necrosis, porcine dermatopathy and nephropathy syndrome. Pathophysiology of coronary band, foot and claw. Traumatic and nutritional contributors to foot and claw lesions.
18 Mammary System 313
Structure and development, physiology of lactation, physiology of maternal immunity, pathophysiology of lactation dysfunction, mastitis, dysgalactia, risk factors.
19 Nervous and Locomotor System 339
Pathophysiology of nervous system, muscle, bone, joint, and eye. Congenital abnormalities, splayleg, congenital tremor, myopathy, porcine stress syndrome, arthritis, metabolic bone disease, rickets, osteochondrosis.
20 Diseases of the Reproductive System 373
Control of estrus, pregnancy, and parturition. Pregnancy diagnosis, dystocia, prolapse, discharge, malereproductive function, semen quality. Laboratory investigation of abortion and reproductive failure.
21 Respiratory System 393
Anatomy, structure, function, pathophysiology.
22 Urinary System 408
Anatomy, structure, function, pathophysiology.
Section III Viral Diseases 425
23 Overview of Viruses 427
General characteristics of viruses, virus taxonomy, detection, characterization of viruses.
24 Adenoviruses 438
25 African Swine Fever Virus 443
26 Anelloviruses 453
Torque teno sus viruses.
27 Astroviruses 457
28 Bunyaviruses 461
Akabane virus, Lumbo virus, Oya virus, Tahyna virus.
29 Caliciviruses 464
Porcine noroviruses, porcine sapoviruses, St-Valérien virus, vesicular exanthema of swine virus.
30 Circoviruses 473
31 Coronaviruses 488
Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus, porcine deltacoronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine torovirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus.
32 Filoviruses 524
Reston ebolavirus, Zaire ebolavirus.
33 Flaviviruses 530
Japanese encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, other flaviviruses.
34 Hepatitis E Virus 544
35 Herpesviruses 548
Malignant catarrhal fever (ovine herpesvirus 2), porcine cytomegalovirus, porcine lymphotropic herpesviruses, pseudorabies (Aujeszky’s disease) virus.
36 Influenza Viruses 576
37 Paramyxoviruses 594
Menangle virus, Nipah virus, porcine parainfluenza virus 1, porcine rubulavirus (blue eye paramyxovirus).
38 Parvoviruses 611
39 Pestiviruses 622
Atypical porcine pestivirus, border disease virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bungowannah virus, classical swine fever virus.
40 Picornaviruses 641
Encephalomyocarditis virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine enteroviruses, porcine kobuvirus, porcine picornavirus Japan, porcine sapelovirus, porcine teschovirus, Seneca Valley virus, swine pasivirus, swine vesicular disease virus.
41 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Viruses (Porcine Arteriviruses) 685
42 Swinepox Virus 709
43 Reoviruses (Rotaviruses and Reoviruses) 715
44 Retroviruses 728
45 Rhabdoviruses 733
Rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis viruses.
46 Togaviruses 740
Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Getah virus, Sagiyama virus, Ross River virus.
Section IV Bacterial Diseases 743
47 Overview of Bacteria 745
Characteristics of genera, disease mechanisms, table of bacterial diseases. Issues in the development of bacterial disease (normal flora, biofilms, dysbacteriosis).
48 Actinobacillosis 749
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae – pleuropneumonia; Actinobacillus suis – septicemia, pleuropneumonia; Actinobacillus equuli – septicemia.
49 Bordetellosis 767
Bordetella bronchiseptica – nonprogressive atrophic rhinitis, bronchopneumonia.
50 Brucellosis 778
Brucella suis – infertility, abortion, perinatal mortality.
51 Clostridial Diseases 792
Clostridium perfringens type C – necrohemorrhagic enteritis; Clostridium perfringens type A – enteritis; Clostridium difficile – necrotizing colitis; Clostridium septicum, perfringens type A, novyi, chauvoei – cellulitis and gas gangrene; Clostridium tetani – tetanus; Clostridium botulinum – botulism.
52 Colibacillosis 807
Neonatal E. coli diarrhea, post weaning E. coli diarrhea and edema disease, E. coli causing fatal shock, systemic E. coli infections, coliform mastitis, nonspecific urinary tract infection.
53 Erysipelas 835
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae – septicemia, arthritis, endocarditis; Erysipelothrix tonsillarum – arthritis, endocarditis.
54 Glässer’s Disease 844
Haemophilus parasuis – fibrinous polyserositis and arthritis.
55 Leptospirosis 854
Leptospira spp. – abortion and stillbirths.
56 Mycoplasmosis 863
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae – enzootic pneumonia; Mycoplasma hyorhinis – polyserositis, arthritis; Mycoplasma hyosynoviae – arthritis; Mycoplasma suis (Eperythrozoon suis) – anemia.
57 Pasteurellosis 884
Pasteurella multocida – progressive atrophic rhinitis, pneumonia, septicemia.
58 Proliferative Enteropathy 898
Lawsonia intracellularis – acute proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy (PHE), chronic porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE).
59 Salmonellosis 912
Salmonella typhimurium, typhimurium I 1,4,,12:i:-variant, heidelberg, typhisuis – enterocolitis; Salmonella choleraesuis var. kunzendorf – septicemia, enterocolitis; Salmonella dublin, enteriditis – meningitis.
60 Staphylococcosis 926
Staphylococcus hyicus – exudative epidermitis; Staphylococcus aureus – skin infections, mastitis, others.
61 Streptococcosis 934
Streptococcus suis – septicemia, meningitis, others; Streptococcus porcinus – cervical lymphadenitis; Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis – septicemia, arthritis, others. Other streptococci – various conditions. Enterococcus durans and hirae – diarrhea.
62 Swine Dysentery and Brachyspiral Colitis 951
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, hampsonii, suanatina – swine dysentery; Brachyspira pilosicoli – intestinal (colonic) spirochetosis; Brachyspira intermedia, murdochii – brachyspiral (mild) colitis.
63 Tuberculosis 971
Mycobacterium avium subsps. avium and hominissuis, M. bovis, M. caprae, M. tuberculosis – localized alimentary lymphadenitis, rare disseminated tuberculosis.
64 Miscellaneous Bacterial Infections 981
Actinobaculum suis (Eubacterium suis) – cystitis, pyelonephritis; Actinomyces hyovaginalis – abortion, lung abscesses; Bacillus anthracis – anthrax; Burkholderia pseudomallei – melioidosis; Campylobacter spp. – enterocolitis; Chlamydia – enteritis, pneumonia, abortion, etc.; Enterococci – neonatal diarrhea; Klebsiella pneumoniae – septicemia; Listeria monocytogenes – septicemia, encephalitis, abortion; Rhodococcus equi – granulomatous lymphadenitis; Treponema pedis – ear necrosis, other skin lesions; Trueperella abortisuis – abortion; Trueperella pyogenes – pyogenic sepsis; Yersinia spp. – enterocolitis.
Section V Parasitic Diseases 1003
65 External Parasites 1005
Mange (Sarcoptes, Demodex), lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies (myiasis), ticks.
66 Coccidia and Other Protozoa 1015
Coccidia (Cystoisospora, Eimeria), Toxoplasma, Sarcocystis, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, microsporidia (Entercytozoon, Encephalitozoon), Balantidium coli, Entamoeba.
67 Internal Parasites: Helminths 1028
Nematodes – Gongylonema, Hyostrongylus, Strongyloides, Ascaris, Trichinella, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Metastrongylus, Paragonimus, Stephanurus, and others; Cestodes – Echinococcus, Taenia, and others; parasiticides.
Section VI Noninfectious Diseases 1041
68 Nutrient Deficiencies and Excesses 1043
Investigation of nutrient deficiencies or excesses, critical control points, inclusion rates, feed analysis, common nutrient concerns including amino acids, vitamins, and minerals.
69 Mycotoxins in Grains and Feeds 1055
Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, citrinin, trichothecenes (T2 toxin, DON), zearalenone, fumonisins.
70 Toxic Minerals, Chemicals, Plants, and Gases 1072
Minerals, feed additives, pesticides, toxic plants, nitrite, effects of water quality, toxic gases, ventilation failure.