Small Animal Dental Procedures for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses

Small Animal Dental Procedures for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses is a comprehensive, procedures-based resource for technicians and nurses involved with all aspects of canine, feline, and exotic animal dentistry. Heavily illustrated and clinically oriented, this training manual provides step-by-step instructions on the oral exam, anesthesia, cleaning and radiology, as well as the necessary background on dental anatomy, common diseases and terminology. Each chapter includes learning objectives and key terms to promote retention, and a companion website provides review questions, training exercises, images from the book and additional images in PowerPoint, chapter glossaries, and forms available for download.

Fully authored by Veterinary Technician Specialists in Dentistry, the book covers all aspects of veterinary dentistry that a technician will encounter in daily practice, with a special emphasis on the technician’s role relative to dental procedures.  With extensive full-color pictures, review questions and glossary terms, Small Animal Dental Procedures for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses is equally useful for veterinary technician or nursing students, technicians or nurses in practice, and those pursuing their specialty certification in veterinary dentistry.

About The Author

About the Author

Jeanne Perrone, CVT, VTS (Dentistry) is a dentistry technician as Tampa Bay Veterinary Specialists.  She also serves as an adjunct instructor for the Veterinary Technician program in dentistry at St. Petersburg College, Dentistry Section Editor for Veterinary Technician magazine, and is a member and former officer of the Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians.

Table of Contents

Contributors xiii

Foreword by Judy Ozier xv

Foreword from Academy of Veterinary Dental Technicians xvii

Preface xix

Acknowledgments xxi

1: The Basics 3
Gerianne Holzman

Anatomy of the Skull 4

Odontogenesis 12

Anatomy of the Tooth 15

Directional Terminology 18

2: The Examination Room and the Dental Patient 23
Mary Berg

Introduction 24

The Client Interview 24

The Oral Examination: Conscious Patient 25

The Dental Estimate (Treatment Plan) 27

3: Components of the Dental Operatory 29
Benita Cherry

Dental Delivery Units 30

Dental Handpieces 32

Power Scalers 34

Dental Tables 38

Ergonomics and Personal Protection 41

4: Anesthesia and the Dental Patient 45
Annie Mills

Introduction 46

Anesthesia for the Dental Patient 46

Anesthetic Equipment 47

Monitoring Anesthesia and Common Complications 50

Pain Management in the Dental Patient 53

5: The Dental Cleaning 59
Julie McMahon

Introduction 60

Common Instrumentation for the Dental Cleaning 61

The Dental Record 64

The Dental Cleaning Procedure 67

Purpose of the Oral Exam and Charting 67

Cleaning the Teeth Using the Power Scaler 74

Dental Cleaning with Hand Instrumentation 75

Polishing 78

Recovery 79

Home Care 80

Equipment and Instrument Care 82

6: Dental Radiology 87
Laurel Bird

Radiography in Veterinary Dentistry 88

The Dental X-Ray Unit 88

Dental Film and Processing 90

Positioning for Taking Dental Radiographs 94

Care and Storage of Images 100

Anatomy of the Dental Radiograph 101

7: Common Dental Conditions and Treatments 105
Jeanne R. Perrone, Sara Sharp, and Patricia A. March

Introduction 106

Periodontal Disease 106
Jeanne R. Perrone

What is Periodontal Disease? 106

Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease 106

Clinical Signs 108

Radiographic Signs 108

Treatment and Therapies 111

Summary 114

Endodontic Disease 115
Sara Sharp

Anatomy of the Pulp 115

Indications for Endodontic Therapy Due to Trauma 115

The Endodontic Exam 116

The Endodontic Treatment 117

In Conclusion 123

Malocclusion 123
Patricia A. March

Normal Occlusion 123

Types and Treatments of Malocclusions 124

Position Statements 126

Treatment of Malocclusions 127

Jaw Fracture Management 130
Patricia A. March

Types and Treatments for Jaw Fractures 130

Oral Tumors 134
Patricia A. March

Benign Oral Tumors and Treatments 135

Malignant Oral Tumors and Treatments 137

Charting and Preparation of Samples 139

8: Feline Dentistry 143
Jennifer Crawford and Billie Jean (Jeannie) Losey

Introduction 144

Gingivostomatitis 144
Jennifer Crawford

Introduction 144

Symptoms of Gingivostomatitis 145

Diagnostics 147

Oral Evaluation 147

Treatments 148

Summary 151

Eosinophilic Granuloma Complex 151
Billie Jean (Jeannie) Losey

Eosinophilic Ulcers 151

Eosinophilic Plaque 151

Collagenolytic Granuloma 152

Causes 152

Symptoms 152

Diagnostics 153

Treatments 153

Feline Tooth Resorption 154
Billie Jean (Jeannie) Losey

Definition and Symptoms 154

Stages of Tooth Resorption 156

Diagnostics 158

Charting 158

Treatment 159

9: Dentistry and the Exotic Patient 161
Kathy Istace

Challenges of Exotic Dentistry 162

Rodent Dentistry 162

Caviomorph Rodents (Guinea Pigs, Chinchillas, Degus) 162

Murine Rodents (Rats, Mice, Hamsters, Gerbils) 162

Oral Examination of Rodents 165

Anesthesia and Pain Management 165

Common Dental Problems of Rodents 167

Dental Instruments 168

Husbandry and Home Care 169

Miscellaneous Small Pets 169

Rabbit Dentistry 170

Oral Anatomy and Dentition of Rabbits 170

Oral Examination of Rabbits 171

Anesthesia and Pain Management 172

Common Dental Problems of Rabbits 174

Dental Instruments 176

Husbandry and Home Care 176

Ferret Dentistry 177

Oral Anatomy and Dentition of Ferrets 177

Oral Examination of Ferrets 177

Anesthesia and Pain Management 177

Common Dental Problems of Ferrets 180

Dental Instruments 181

Husbandry and Home Care 181

Dental Radiography for the Exotic Patient 181

Materials and Equipment 181

Rodents and Rabbits 182

Ferrets 184

10: Discharging the Dental Patient 187
Patricia Dominguez

Discharge Instructions: What You Need 188

The Importance of Photographs and Radiographs 192

Managing Recheck Visits 194

Reminders: How Often Should Dental Patients Return? 195

Appendices 197

1. Home Oral Health Care Interview Form 197

2. Canine Dental Chart 198

3. Feline Dental Chart 200

4. Dental Procedure Estimate 202

5. Dental Procedure Release Form 203

6. Dental Radiograph Template 204

7. Discharge Take Home Instructions Example 206

8. Discharge Take Home Pictures: Simple Example 208

9. Discharge Take Home Pictures: Detailed Example 209

Index 217

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