Manual of Anaesthetic Monitoring in Small Animals

Manual of Anaesthetic Monitoring in Small Animals

By Ignacio Sández Cordero

Manual of Anaesthetic Monitoring in Small Animals PDF explains how to monitor the organ systems of healthy and medically compromised patients during anaesthesia so as to help veterinary surgeons understand what is happening at every moment and reduce complications. In addition, it has been conceived as a reference book that can be consulted in emergency situations. The authors, who are specialists in the field, provide in-depth information about the physiological aspects of anaesthesia, together with numerous clinical cases and real situations.

Table of Contents

1. Monitoring, complications and mortality in anaesthesia (I. Sández, I. Redondo)

2. Prior assessment of patients’ state of health (M.A. Cabezas)

Preanaesthetic assessment and preanaesthetic consultation

Additional tests

ASA classification and preanaesthetic assessment of critical points

3. Anaesthetic records (F. Aprea)

4. Basic monitoring (I. Sández)

Proper interpretation of pulmonary and cardiac auscultation

Peripheral pulse palpation

Mucous membrane colour

Capillary refill time

5. Cardiovascular system (I. Sández, D. Torralbo, M. Soto)

Electrocardiogram (ECG): arrhythmia detection and assessment of ECG changes

Arterial pressure

Noninvasive methods: conventional oscillometry, high-definition oscillometry and Doppler method

Invasive methods: arterial catheterisation techniques, interpretation of the invasive arterial pressure curve and possible artefacts

Central venous pressure (CVP)

Cardiac output

Measurement methods

Importance of in-clinic measurement

Preload monitoring

Tissue oxygen delivery

6. Respiratory system (F. Martínez, M. Martínez)

Pulse oximetry

SO2 percentage

Plethysmographic curve


Curve interpretation

Importance of capnography in the V/Q ratio

7. Respiratory mechanics monitoring (J. Martínez, I. Sández)

Spirometry in patients with spontaneous ventilation

Spirometry in patients with mechanical ventilation

Pressure-time, flow-time and volume-time curves

Pressure-volume and flow-volume loops

Haemodynamic implications of mechanical ventilation

8. Temperature (I. Redondo)

Hypothermia: consequences and prevention

Hyperthermia: consequences and prevention

9. Central nervous system monitoring (I. Sández)


Assessment of the degree of hypnosis

Position of the eyeball and reflexes

Anaesthetic agent concentration

Assessment of electrical brain activity: electroencephalogram (EEG)

Assessment of the degree of intraoperative analgesia

Arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR)

Plethysmographic curve

Parasympathetic tone activity (PTA)

Changes in the BIS

Additional monitoring of the nervous system: intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring

10. Neuromuscular block monitoring (M. Martín, M. Lorenzutti)

11. Arterial and venous blood gasometry (E. Rioja, I. Sández)


PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3

Pa:FiO2 ratio

A-a CO2 Diff assessment

Electrolyte imbalances affecting anaesthesia

12. Lactate (C. Palacios, I. Sández)

Measurement and interpretation

Importance as a diagnostic and prognostic marker



13. Postanaesthetic monitoring of critical patients (J. Viscasillas)


14. Glossary of terms

This Book is For Premium Members Only

Become a Premium Member or Go To Free Trial Books