Feline Ophthalmology. The manual

Feline Ophthalmology. The manual is laid out in an easy-to-read and accessible style, taking the form of a semi-atlas. There are many photographs and illustrations with an accompanying up-to-date text, including references, with practical tips and cutting edge information. Step-by-step guides to minor procedures and surgical conditions provide clear advice on techniques in general practice, with occasional reference to what is available in referral practice. Background information on anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is also provided, but kept to a reasonable level. This book contains everything the clinician needs to know about eye-related problems in cats.

Table of Contents

1. Ocular examination
Introduction
Background
Equipment.
Ocular examination
Examination in ambient lighting
Schirmer tear test
Laboratory sample collection
Microbiological sampling
Cytological sampling
Neuro-ophthalmic examination
Vision testing
Light reflexes
The palpebral reflex
The vestibulo-ocular reflex and physiological nystagmus
Distant direct ophthalmoscopy
Close examination in dim light or darkness
Fundus examination
Direct ophthalmoscopy
Indirect ophthalmoscopy
Ophthalmic dyes
Fluorescein
Rose Bengal
Aesthesiometry
Tonometry
Gonioscopy
Electroretinography
Diagnostic imaging
Radiology
Ultrasonography
Computerised tomography and magnetic resonance imaging
References
2. Anaesthesia and surgery
Introduction
Anaesthesia and analgesia
Preanaesthetic assessment
Analgesia and analgesics
Opioids
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
Local anaesthetics
Alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists
Ketamine
Anaesthesia for ophthalmic surgery
Premedication
Induction, intubation and maintenance of anaesthesia
Neuromuscular blockade
Surgical preparation for ophthalmic procedures
Hair removal
Ocular disinfection
Draping
The operating room
Magnification
Seating of the surgeon
Head positioning of the patient
Surgical instrumentation
Instruments
Suture material and needles
References
3. Ocular therapeutics
Drug delivery to the eye and adnexa
Ocular medications
Antibacterials
Antiviral agents
Antifungal agents
Parasiticides
Antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory drugs
Antiglaucoma drugs
Mydriatics and cycloplegics
Tear substitutes
Anticollagenases
Fibrinolytics
References
4. The orbit and globe
Anatomy and function
Diagnosis of orbital disease
Introduction
Examination and clinical signs
Ancillary diagnostic tests
Congenital anomalies of the globe and orbit
Anophthalmos and microphthalmos
Hydrophthalmos
Breed-related exophthalmos
Acquired anomalies of the globe and orbit
Buphthalmos
Phthisis bulbi
Trauma
Blunt and penetrating trauma
Globe proptosis
Orbital abscessation and cellulitis
Senile enophthalmos
Orbital cystic disease
Orbital neoplasia
Restrictive orbital myofibroblastic sarcoma
Globe removal techniques
Enucleation
Orbital evisceration and intraocular prosthesis
Orbital exenteration
References
5. The eyelids, nictitans and lacrimal system
Anatomy and function
Diseases of the eyelids
Ophthalmia neonatorum
Eyelid coloboma
Dermoid
Distichiasis and ectopic cilia
Entropion
Blepharitis
Viral
Bacterial
Fungal
Parasitic
Immune-mediated
Allergic
Apocrine hidrocystomas
Eyelid neoplasia
The tarsorrhaphy
Diseases of the nictitans
Nictitans protrusion
Prolapse of the nictitans gland
Nictitans cartilage eversion
Neoplasia of the nictitans
The nictitans flap
Diseases of the nasolacrimal system
Epiphora
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Trauma to the eyelids, nictitans and nasolacrimal system
References
6. The conjunctiva
Anatomy and function
Congenital conditions
Dermoid
Acquired conditions
Symblepharon
Trauma
Conjunctivitis
Neonatal conjunctivitis
Infectious conjunctivitis
Lipogranulomatous conjunctivitis
Eosinophilic (proliferative) conjunctivitis
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Parasitic conjunctivitis
Neoplasia
Squamous cell carcinoma
Melanoma
Vascular conjunctival tumours
Other neoplastic conditions affecting the conjunctiva
References
7. The cornea
Anatomy and function
Congenital and developmental conditions
Dermoid
Microcornea and megalocornea
Leukoma associated with persistent pupillary membranes
Lysosomal storage disease
Corneal dystrophy
Acquired conditions of the cornea
Herpetic keratitis
Eosinophilic (proliferative) keratitis
Corneal sequestrum
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
Acute bullous keratopathy
Florida keratopathy
Corneal degeneration
Corneal ulceration
Superficial corneal ulceration
Stromal corneal ulceration
Exposure keratitis
Corneal laceration
Corneal foreign body
Corneal epithelial inclusion cyst
Neoplasia
References
8. The uveal tract
Anatomy and function
The iris
The ciliary body
The choroid
The blood-ocular barrier
Congenital conditions
Congenital disorders of pigmentation
Albinism
Iris heterochromia
Incomplete iris development
Iris coloboma
Iris hypoplasia
Persistent pupillary membrane
Acquired conditions
Ectropion uveae
Uveal cysts
Iris pigmentation
Iridal melanosis
Copper-coloured iris
Iris atrophy
Synechiae
Lipaemic aqueous
Uveitis
Clinical signs
Causes of uveitis
Investigation of uveitis
Uveal neoplasia
Diffuse iris melanoma
Feline intraocular sarcoma
Primary ciliary body neoplasia
Metastatic neoplasia
References
9. Glaucoma
Introduction
What is glaucoma?
Aqueous humour dynamics
Investigation of glaucoma
Tonometry
Ophthalmoscopy
Gonioscopy
Normal intraocular pressure
Clinical signs of glaucoma
Types of feline glaucoma
Primary glaucoma
Secondary glaucoma
Chronic anterior uveitis
Intraocular neoplasia
Lens disorders
Intraocular haemorrhage
Aqueous humour misdirection syndrome
Uveal cysts
Treatment of glaucoma
Medical treatment
Surgical treatment
References
10. The lens
Embryology, anatomy and function
Congenital anomalies
Acquired anomalies of the lens
Nuclear sclerosis
Cataracts
Lens luxation
References
11. The vitreous and fundus
Anatomy and function
Congenital abnormalities of the vitreous and fundus
The vitreous
The fundus
Acquired diseases of the vitreous and fundus
Acquired diseases of the vitreous
Acquired diseases of the fundus
Retina and choroid
Optic nerve head
References
12. Neuro-ophthalmology
The neuro-ophthalmic examination
Vision testing
The menace response
The tracking response
The visual placing response
Maze tests and obstacle courses
Light reflexes
The pupillary light reflex and swinging flashlight test
The dazzle reflex
The palpebral and corneal reflexes
The vestibulo-ocular reflex and physiological nystagmus
Autonomic innervation of the eye and adnexa
Parasympathetic innervation
Sympathetic innervation
Ophthalmic manifestations of neurological disease
Disorders of the autonomic nervous system
Horner’s syndrome
Pourfour du Petit syndrome
Dysautonomia (Key-Gaskell syndrome)
Disorders of globe position and movement
Strabismus
Strabismus and nystagmus associated with ocular albinism
Cavernous sinus syndrome
Causes of neuro-ophthalmic disease
Congenital
Hydrocephalus
Acquired
Infectious causes of neuro-ophthalmic disease
Idiopathic meningoencephalitis
Metabolic
Trauma
Neoplasia of the CNS
Postanaesthetic blindness
Contralateral optic neuropathy
References

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