Advances in Dairy Ingredients PDF Download.

Cryptosporidium as a Foodborne Pathogen

Cryptosporidium as a Foodborne Pathogen PDF

By Lucy J. Robertson

Cryptosporidium as a Foodborne Pathogen PDF. Although widely recognized as an important waterborne pathogen, Cryptosporidium spp. can also be transmitted by contamination of food. The same properties of this protozoan parasite that mean that water is an excellent transmission vehicle are also important for foodborne transmission. These include the low infective dose, the high number of oocysts that are excreted, and the robustness of these transmission stages. However, many more outbreaks of waterborne cryptosporidiosis have been reported than foodborne outbreaks. This is probably partly due to epidemiological tracing being much more difficult for foodborne outbreaks than waterborne outbreaks, and the number of persons exposed to infection often being fewer. Nevertheless, the potential importance of foodborne transmission is gradually being recognized, and a wide range of different foodstuffs have been associated with those outbreaks that have been recorded. Additionally, various factors mean that the potential for foodborne transmission is becoming of increasing importance: these include the growth of international food trade, a current trend for eating raw or very lightly cooked foods, and the rise in small-scale organic farms, where there the possibility for contamination of vegetable crops with animal feces may be greater.
Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Cryptosporidium: The Parasite and the Disease ………. 1
2 Transmission Routes and Factors That Lend
Themselves to Foodborne Transmission …………………………………………. 11
3 Documented Foodborne Outbreaks of Cryptosporidiosis ……………….. 13
4 Approaches to Detecting Cryptosporidium Oocysts
in Different Food Matrices …………………………………………………………….. 25
4.1 Fruits and Vegetables ………………………………………………………………. 28
4.1.1 Method Development ……………………………………………………. 28
4.1.2 Method Standardisation ………………………………………………… 30
4.1.3 Further Research on Method Development ……………………… 32
4.2 Shellfi sh…………………………………………………………………………………. 33
4.3 Meat ……………………………………………………………………………………… 35
4.4 Beverages ………………………………………………………………………………. 36
4.5 Water Used in the Food Industry ………………………………………………. 37
5 Occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in Different
Food Matrices: Results of Surveys …………………………………………………. 39
5.1 Fruits and Vegetables ………………………………………………………………. 40
5.2 Shellfi sh…………………………………………………………………………………. 44
5.3 Meat ……………………………………………………………………………………… 48
5.4 Beverages ………………………………………………………………………………. 49
5.5 Water Used in the Food Industry ………………………………………………. 50
5.5.1 Irrigation Water, etc. …………………………………………………….. 50
5.5.2 Depuration Water …………………………………………………………. 54
5.5.3 Wash Water …………………………………………………………………. 55
5.5.4 Other Water …………………………………………………………………. 55
6 Inactivation or Decontamination Procedures ………………………………….. 57
7 Risk Assessment and Regulations …………………………………………………… 65
8 Future Challenges …………………………………………………………………………. 71
9 Conclusions …………………………………………………………………………………… 73
References ………………………………………………………………………………………….. 75

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