Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects

Cardio-Respiratory Control In Vertebrates Comparative And Evolutionary Aspects

By Mogens L. Glass and Stephen C. Wood

Cardio-Respiratory Control in Vertebrates Comparative and Evolutionary Aspects PDF is the evolution of cardiovascular and respiratory control in vertebrates. Life originated in water, which has constantly changing temperatures and O2 levels. Fish gills can extract up to 80% of their inspired O2, because they have a countercurrent bloodstream. Oxygen sensors have been found within the gill arches of ray-finned fish such as carp and trout, and these O2 sensors screen the inspired water and the capillary blood.

Very likely, land vertebrates and the lungfish arose as a sister group, and both possess real lungs. Lungfish include 6 species, inhabiting shallow lakes or rivers, whereas the second ramification includes all the land vertebrates. A possible ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates has been discovered in China, and this fossil (Styloichthys) bridges a gap. Living 417 million years ago, it could represent one of the last ramifications before the common ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates. In addition, rather constant atmospheric O2 levels permit a joint acid-base regulation by the lung and the kidney. Likewise, lungfish and land vertebrates share a central control of pulmonary ventilation, while the peripheral receptor contribution to acid-base regulation is minor.

Table of Contents
Control of Respiration in Aquatic Vertebrates

Overview of the Respiratory System

Gas Transport and Gill Function in Water-Breathing Fish

Patterns of Acid–Base Regulation During Exposure to Hypercarbia in Fishes

Buoyancy Control in Aquatic Vertebrates

Gas Exchange and Control of Respiration in Air-Breathing Teleost Fish

Effects of Temperature on Cardiac Function in Teleost Fish

Physiological Evidence Indicates Lungfish as a Sister Group to the Land Vertebrates

Aestivation in Amphibians, Reptiles, and Lungfish

Evolution of pulmonary mechanics and respiratory control

Trade-offs in the Evolution of the Respiratory Apparatus of Chordates

Environmental Selection Pressures Shaping the Pulmonary Surfactant System of Adult and Developing Lungs

Midbrain Structures and Control of Ventilation in Amphibians

Comparative Aspects of Hypoxia Tolerance of the Ectothermic Vertebrate Heart

Control of the Heart and of Cardiorespiratory Interactions in Ectothermic Vertebrates

The Endocrine–Paracrine Control of the Cardiovascular System

Stoking the Brightest Fires of Life Among Vertebrates

Respiratory Physiology of Birds: Metabolic Control

Prenatal Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Avian Species

Control of Breathing in Birds: Implications for High-Altitude Flight

Mammalian and Human Physiology

Peripheral Chemoreceptors in Mammals: Structure, Function and Transduction

Central Chemosensitivity in Mammals

Human Exercise Physiology

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