Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, Expert Consult, 11Th Edition

By Leonard Levin

Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, Expert Consult, 11Th Edition PDF. Drs. Paul L. Kaufman, Albert Alm, Leonard A Levin, Siv F. E. Nilsson, James Ver Hoeve, and Samuel Wu present the 11th Edition of the classic text Adler’s Physiology of the Eye, updated to enhance your understanding of ocular function. This full-color, user-friendly edition captures the latest molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries and offers you unparalleled knowledge and insight into the physiology of the eye and its structures. A new organization by function, rather than anatomy, helps you make a stronger connection between physiological principles and clinical practice; and more than 1,000 great new full-color illustrations help clarify complex concepts. You can also access the complete contents online at

  • Deepen your grasp of the physiological principles that underlie visual acuity, color vision, ocular circulation, the extraocular muscle, and much more.
  • Glean the latest knowledge in the field, including the most recent molecular, genetic, and biochemical discoveries.
  • Make a stronger connection between physiology and clinical practice with the aid of an enhanced clinical emphasis throughout, as well as a new organization by function rather than by anatomy.
  • Better visualize all concepts by viewing 1,000 clear, full-color illustrations.
  • Access the complete contents online at

The new and improved Adler’s makes mastering the basic science of the eye engaging and easy

Table of Contents

Sect. 1. Focusing of an Image on the Retina. Optics 

Optical aberrations and wavefront sensing


Sect. 2. Physiology of Optical Media. Cornea and sclera 

The lens

The vitreous

Sect. 3. Direction of Gaze. The extraocular muscles

Three-dimensional rotations of the eye

Neural control of eye movements

Sect. 4. Nutrition of the Eye. Ocular circulation 

Production and flow of aqueous humor

Metabolic interactions between neurons and filial cells

The function of the retinal pigment epithelium

Sect. 5. Protection of the Eye. Functions of the orbit and eyelids 

Formation and function of the tear film

Sensory innervation of the eye

Outward-directed transport

Sect. 6. Photoreception. A biochemical cascade of phototransduction 

Photoresponses of rods and cones

Light adaptation in photoreceptors

Sect. 7. Visual Processing in the Retina. The synaptic organization of the retina 

Signal processing in the outer retina

Signal processing in the inner retina

Electroretinogram of human, monkey, and mouse

Sect. 8. Non-perceptive Vision. Regulation of light through the pupil

Ganglion-cell photoreceptors and non-image forming

Sect. 9. Visual Processing in the Brain. Overview of central visual pathways /

Optic nerve

Processing in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)

Processing in the primary visual cortex

Extrastriate visual cortex

Sect. 10. Visual Perception. Early processing of spatial form 

Visual acuity

Color vision

The visual field

Binocular vision

Temporal properties of vision

Sect. 11. Development and Deprivation of Vision. Development of vision in infancy 

Development of retinogeniculate projections

Developmental visual deprivation

The effects of visual deprivation after infancy

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